If you see all the religions of world, you will find that Sanatan Dharma is the most tolerant and lenient because we follow the principles of “Vasudev Kutambhkam” and that’s why we welcomed everyone. People came to Bharat in the name of doing business and later on betrayed and encroached on our land. They partly succeeded in defeating some of our kings due to many reasons few of which were; weak kings in some states, non-unity amongst rulers of different States, excessive tolerance and avoiding the apparent threats, treating and considering everyone of high moral values and trustworthy etc.

Above all the main reasons were our religious sentiments and cultural values. In Sanatan philosophy we believe in respecting others, specifically we treated “Atithiti Devo Bhav:” and provided status of God to our guest because of which we never doubted the integrity of visitors coming to our country. Seeing our simplicity, hospitality and weaknesses, such visitors dared to think about capturing our country. At that time Bharat was not united and different kings were ruling various states. Transportation facilities were not available and hence friendship amongst kings were restricted up to neighboring States only. The only medium of communication or sending information was through messengers and which used to take a lot of time. So, whenever invaders attacked some state, sending message and seeking help from friendly states could not happen early and hence we lost states one by one. Only capable and brave kings could win and save their states.

It is pertinent to mention here that biggest lie of the world i.e. Mughals ruled Bharat for 800 years was taught to us, which is totally false. Communist writers wrote such false history just to demoralize us. If you search you will find that the Mughals never ruled whole of Bharat at any point of time. Although they ruled Delhi but even at that time there were many kings who were ruling bigger states or areas. Mughals could not win the whole of Bharat and the areas under their rule was scattered and kept changing hands.

This false lie created a fear amongst the mind of people as if Mughals were much powerful whereas the reality was they won maximum battles due to betrayal of our people only. After independence the communist lobby which wrote the history books just praised Mughals and Britishers and down played the role of our brave rulers. When you don’t know the true history of your great warriors/ancestors you cannot fight with liars.

Tolerance is an integral part of our culture and fear does not hold any place. We remained unaware and this tolerance converted into unseen fear with the passage of time. Actually, our upbringing was such that we never fought with any one because we followed varn system in which only kshatriya were supposed to be fighters. This mentality resulted into making us fearful and on the other hand the false stories narrating others as heroes had also impacted our mindset.

Though we have taught our children the stories of Dwarkadheesh (Lord Krishna who narrated Gita) and his preaching’s about non-tolerance of excesses of any sort but what our ancestors did? They taught us stories of Kanhaiya playing flute and dancing with Gopis. A person’s personality reflects his upbringing and whatever he sees during his childhood becomes part of his personality. The fighting spirit of our great warriors could not be inculcated into coming generations due to wrong interpretations of our sculptures.

The flaw in personality showed it’s impact at the time of independence when great visionary like Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar asked for whole transfer of population and another greedy leader preferred to just grab the power chair instead of listening him. One wrong decision can make the life hell is apparent today as we see the dominance and aggression of a particular community which instead of being thankful, is preparing to divide the country again.

They are behaving like a naughty child who is pampered by parents for every wrong act. Now to control that child you need to shed your fear and tolerance and show your bravery without which nothing will happen. Every one respect only a powerful person. You will rarely find anyone respecting a weak person.

Unless you show your bravery these illiterate and uneducated people will not refrain from committing sins. Once you show your power/ strength they will sit silently until they acquire majority and once they are in majority there will be no place for you in your own country. They are claiming every right saying they ruled the country for 800 years and we don’t counter them even though our ancestors were here since time immortal.

You have every right to disagree but the truth is that your tolerance is considered as your weakness and fear. Tolerance does have some limits and the day it crossed the limits there will be hue and cry only. So, it is better to control the things before they become worst. If you want to give your children a peaceful place to live you will have to act now.

Another problem with us is we being law abiding citizens expect the same from everyone whereas the other party does not believe in that philosophy, which they are clearly and openly saying again and again and you have closed your eyes.

Are the statements of one leader called Akbarrudin Owaisi from Hyderabad asking for removal of police for 10 minutes to show their strength to Hindus, Maullana Madni openly saying in media briefing that they will demolish the Ram Temple, immediately after Supreme Court judgement and the actions of some leaders during Delhi and Bangalore riots not enough to open your eyes and even after watching exodus of Kashmiri Pandits, condition of Hindus in Mewat, Kairana, Dasna, West Bengal, Kerala etc.?

If you don’t wake up from your deep slumber even now then note it that no one will be there to save you. Don’t expect everything to be done by the Government because it will not be possible to control this unruly mob unless you take the responsibility to save yourself. Even the constitution of India gives you liberty to act in self-defense and save your precious life. I don’t ask for doing anything against anyone. I just want to tell you to ensure safety of your family and to take every necessary step in that direction so that at the time of need you don’t feel helpless as the people of Delhi or Bangalore felt during riots.

The community which have weapons in every home for preparing their daily dishes needs nothing extra to save themselves but what about you? In your house you cannot find a knife to slice apple even what to talk of self-defense. In old times people used to have sticks in their homes to control animals but today you cannot find it in any house.

Most importantly please send your children to self-defense coaching classes so that atleast they are able to save themselves in case of any exigency. My motive is not to provoke anyone or against any particular community but this is just to awaken you to make arrangements so as to save youself and your family, keeping in view the recent incidents.


Among the Hindus, vivaha or marriage is considered a sarira samskara, i.e., sacraments sanctifying the body, which every individual has to go through in life. It is a topic that is controversial and widely debated. When you optically canvass elaborate Indian arranged marriages and analyze the involution and effort involved to make it prosperous, you may wonder how and when this practice commenced. Arranged marriages in India originated during the Vedic period of Indian history. The ceremony and the institution of arranged marriages withal took its shape during this time.


Hindu marriage harmonizes two individuals for ultimate eternity, so that they can pursue dharma (Truth), arth (meaning), and kama (worldly desires). It is a union of two individuals as spouses, and is recognized by livable continuity. In Hinduism, marriage is not followed by traditional rituals for consummation. In fact, marriage is considered complete or valid even without consummation because the marriage is between two souls and it is beyond the body. It also joins two families together. Today the culture of marriage among Hindus is such new concept of Love-Arrange Marriage or Arrange-Love Marriage.


The concept of Hindu Marriage goes much deeper than just a man-woman relationship. It has been called as essential Samskara as it imbibes all the humane ethos of Hindu Culture from the birth of human life, endurance through trials & tribulations of married life and destiny of future generation after the death of marriage partners. Its ideals are the fulfillment of dharma, procreation, and enjoyment of sexual pleasure. It exhibits an integral approach to this social institution.


Marriage is considered to be a sacred institution  in India.  It is a ‘sanskara’ or purificatory ceremony obligatory for every Hindu. Marriages, according to Hindu beliefs are made in heaven, and once you are married, the bond is supposed to last for seven lifetimes. It is considered to be a turning point in an individual’s life as he enters the second important phase or ashram of his life – the ‘Garhasthyaashram’. Hindu religious books have enjoined marriage as a duty because an unmarried man cannot perform some of the most important religious ceremonies.


As the Vedic religion evolved into classical orthodox Hinduism (ca. 500BC), the social ideas advanced by Manu gained prominence, and large sections of Indian society moved towards patriarchy and caste-based rules. Manu and others attacked the Gandharva and other similar systems, decrying them as holdouts “from the time of promiscuity” which, at best, were only suitable for small sections of society. Under the system they advocated (sometimes called Manuvad), women were stripped of their traditional independence and placed permanently in male custodianship: first of their fathers in childhood, then of their husbands through married life, and finally of their sons in old age. Women then began to migrate to their husband’s home after getting married.


The Hindu scriptures admit the following eight forms of marriage:

  • Brahma marriage: In this form of marriage the girl, decorated with clothes and ornaments, is given in marriage to a learned and gentle bridegroom. This is the prevalent form of marriage in Hindu society today.
  • Prajapatya marriage: In this form of marriage the daughter is offered to the bride-groom by blessing them with the enjoyment of marital bliss and the fulfillment of dharma.
  • Aarsh marriage: In this form of marriage a Rishi used to accept a girl in marriage after giving a cow or bull and some clothes to the parents of the girl. These articles were not the price of the bride but indicated the resolve of the Rishi to lead a house-hold life. According to P.K.Acharya, the word Aarsh has been derived from the word Rishi.
  • Daiva Marriage: In this form of marriage the girl, decorated with ornaments and clothes, was offered to the person who conducted the function of a Purohit in the yajna.
  • Asura marriage: In this form of marriage the bride-groom gets the bride in exchange for some money or articles given to the family members of the bride. Such a form of marriage was conducted in the case of marriage of Pandu with Madri.
  • Gandharva marriage: This form is marriage is the result of mutual affection and love of the bride and the bride-groom. An example of this type of marriage is the marriage of the King Dushyanata with Shakuntala. In this form of marriage, the ceremonies can be performed after a sexual relationship between the bride and the bride-groom. In Taittariya Samhita it has been pointed out that this type of marriage has been so named because of its prevalence among the Gandharvas.
  • Rakshas marriage: This type of marriage was prevalent in the age when women were considered to be the prize of the war. In this type of marriage, the bride-groom takes away the bride from her house forcibly after killing and injuring her relatives.
  • Paisach marriage: This type of marriage has been called to be most degenerate. In this type, a man enters into a sexual relationship with a sleeping, drunk or unconscious woman. Such acts were regularised after the performance of a marriage ceremony which took place after the physical relationship between the man and woman.


Historically the Vedic marriage was but one of the few different types of Hindu marriage customs. Love marriage was also seen in historical Hindu literature and has been variously described by many names, such as Gandharva vivaha. In certain poor vaishnav communities there is still a custom called kanthi-badal which is an exchange of bead-garlands as a very simplified form of ritual in solitude in front of an idol of Krishna, considered a form of acceptable love marriage.

Elopement has also been described in old Hindu literature. Lord Krishna himself eloped with Rukmini on a horse chariot. It is written that Rukmini’s father was going to marry her to Shishupal, against her wishes. Rukimini sent a letter to Krishna informing of a place and time to pick her up.


The married Hindu women in different parts of India follow different customs. Mostly sindoor, mangalsutra and bangles are considered as signs of a married woman. In some places, in especially Eastern India, instead of mangalsutra they put only vermilion on the hair parting, wear a pair of conch bangles (shankha), red bangles (pala) and an iron bangle on the left hand (loha) while their husband is alive. In southern India, a married woman may wear a necklace with a distinctive pendant called a thali and silver toe-rings. Both are put on her by the husband during the wedding ceremony.


The Manu Samhita that was written in around 200 BC, is known to have laid down the marital laws, which is followed even today. Manu, one of the most influential interpreters of these scriptures, documented the Manu Samhita. Traditionally accepted as one of the supplementary arms of the Vedas, The Laws of Manu or Manava Dharma Shastra is one of the standard books in the Hindu canon, presenting the norms of domestic, social, and religious life in India.


These texts mention the four main aims of Hindu life: Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. Dharma represented the harmony between “temporal interests and spiritual freedom”. Artha referred to the “acquisitive instinct, and signified man’s enjoyment of wealth”. Kama represented the instinctive and was connected with satisfying the emotional, sexual, and aesthetic urges of man. Moksha represented the end of life and the realization of an inner spirituality in man.


It further mentions that these four aims of life were to be accomplished by conducting life in four stages which were – “bhramacharya, grihastha, vanaspratha, and samnyasa”.The second stage grihastha dealt with marriage and included the goals of dharma, progeny, and sex. The Vedas and the Smritis thus gave an authentic written foundation to the institution of marriage. As Vedas and the Manu Samhita is the earliest available document it can be ascertained that marriage started with this era.


Hindu marriage ceremony is essentially a Vedic yajna or fire-sacrifice, in which the Aryan deities are invoked in the archaic Indo-Aryan style. The primary witness of a Hindu marriage is the fire-deity or Agni, and by law and tradition, no Hindu marriage is deemed complete unless in the presence of the Sacred Fire, and seven circumambulations have been made around it by the bride and the groom together. The Vedas set out in detail the ritualistic importance of the nuptial ceremony. The seven vows of a Hindu marriage are also mentioned in the Vedic texts.


Due to the influence of Western culture and English education, the Hindu marriage system has undergone considerable changes. Some of the important ones are:

Marriage is not held as compulsory: In the Hindu society formerly marriage was considered to be absolutely compulsory for both males and females. According to Hindu scriptures, a person who does not beget a son through marriage cannot attain heaven. No man could perform ‘yajna’ without a wife. Marriage, therefore, was necessary even for religious purposes. But, due to the influence of Western culture, many males and females do not consider marriage to be necessary these days. Due to economic difficulties also some persons do not enter into matrimony. The modern educated Hindu girl is not ready to accept the slavery of males. The educated men and women do not believe in the ancient religious values and therefore do not consider marriage to be necessary.

Breaking of the taboos of Sagotra and Sapravar marriage: Ancient Hindu tradition forbids the marriage of persons belonging to the same Gotra and Pravar. This very much restricts the field of choice of mate. Therefore, at present, the educated persons are gradually violating the restriction. It has been also rejected by law.

The opposition of Child Marriages: In medieval India, the custom of child marriage was very much in vogue. After the passing of the Sarada Act, child marriages have become illegal. Another factor leading to the restriction of child marriage in Hindu society is a tremendous increase in women’s education. The boys do not marry early because of late settlement in career.

Permission of Inter-caste Marriage: Formerly, inter-caste marriage was considered to be wrong in the Hindu society. It has now been legally permitted. With the increase of co-education, women’s education and the democratic ideal of equality and liberty, inter-caste marriages are now considered to be signs of forwardness.

Permission of Widow Remarriage: due to the untiring efforts of the social reformers and educated person widow remarriage is no more considered to be wrong in Hindu society. Consequently, its incidence is now on the decrease.

Prohibition of Polygamy: Formerly, a man was allowed to marry several women in order to get a son. With the increase of women’s education, the ladies are demanding equal rights in marriage. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 has declared polygamy to be illegal. No one can marry a second time, while the former spouse is alive.

Provision for Divorce: The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 has introduced a significant change in the institution of Hindu marriage by permitting divorce under certain specific circumstances.


Mutually fixed/ consented marriages are basically of three types:

  •  Between same caste– intra-caste & intra-faith marriages
  •  Inter-caste marriages
  • Inter-faith marriages

Love marriage is a misnomer because love in matrimonial context is sexual interplay, which includes dating, courtship, live-in arrangement, infatuation, and even sexual contact/ violence. Any of these may or may not fructify into a solemnized legal marriage. More often than not, this results in a void, voidable or bigamous marriage than a legal marriage. From a legal point of view, these relationships or marriages form a great chunk of matrimonial disputes and matrimonial violence. In love marriages or self-seek matrimonial alliances, sexual relationships or even courtship before marriage are quite common. Both of these aspects have grave legal implications. Therefore, the utmost secrecy by both partners sometimes lands them into the arena of criminal offenses.


More and more couples are going in for live-in relationships, not only celebrities but even middle-class couples are choosing to live together for various personal or social reasons. Some of these reasons are: society and families no longer frown upon ‘live-in relationship’ as much as before and couples who do not wish to make lifelong commitments prefer to live together before getting married. Others say that they need to know each other better before they tie the nuptial knot. Yet others live together due to circumstances such as work requirements or for saving money by keeping one house rather than two. Lastly, young men and women live together because they no longer believe in the traditional sanctity of marriage.


Hindus believe in astrology. The prospective couple’s horoscopes have to be analyzed and “suitably matched” for the marriage to take place. Hindu astrology, a system that originated in ancient India, was documented by sages in the Vedic scriptures. The origin of arranged marriages in India and its dignified past comes from the amazing specificity of Vedic astrology. So, the evolution of arranged marriages has been a gradual process with its roots in the Vedic period. The period prior to it, i.e., the Indus Valley Civilization has no written scriptures or scripts relating to this period. Hence, there is an extensive need for deciphering the script of the Indus civilization to have an idea about the society and marriage customs of this period to open avenues for further research.


Vedic path refers to the three stages of a person:

The initial stage, which is Bhramacharya: the study and learning of Vedas and Gayathri Upasana, and worship of Agni through oblations twice a day.

The next stage is the Grihastashrama (getting into marital life) and offering oblations to Agni by performing Agni Upasana, Yagas, etc. along with the life partner which are meant for the evolution of one’s self in the spiritual realm.

The final stage is offering one’s body after death to the Agni that was worshipped.

It should be understood that vanaspratha is the continuation of grihastha stage after discharging the duties and retiring along with the wife and continuing Agni Upasana, penance, and nitya karmas.

To lead a life as prescribed by the Vedas, here is the system to be followed by one and all:

  1. Initiation into Gayathri Upasana
  2. Study of the Vedas or understanding the messages given in them.
  3. Agni Upasana as part of Gayathri Upasana and Vedic study (BRAHMACHARYA).
  4. Getting into married life and continuing Agni Worship as a couple – Grihastha Dharma.
  5. Offering one’s body in the fire worshipped by the couple (The concept behind the ritual followed for cremation in the present day)


As saying goes:

“Jisne bhi shadi ke laddu khaye vo bhi pachtaye jisne nahin khaye vo bhi pachtaye”.

Marriage besides holy matrimony is an everlasting union between two people (especially those to whom you do not know earlier). Marriage can be blessed or cursed. Marriage and wedding is not the same. Marriage is the uniting of two people to become one both spiritually and physically. It is commitment between two different natured persons for love and honour of each other till death.

Wedding is a day event, it’s the joining of two people to become one, but after that day it is not going to happen again. It is something happened in a life time.

Marriage is to be appreciated and respected. Most people marry by appearance; he must be tall, dark, and handsome, have beards, have pink lipsete, must have good looks, good figure, and nice set of teeth, have sexy voice, earner, family values, education, background etc.

I am not saying you shouldn’t know what you want, appearance matters, but, character matters most. I would say appearance brings a man but character or manners keeps him cause when you have a reason you love someone (cause of her cute eyes) one day you might look and it’s not there and the love decrease. No matter what, good manner matters.

The success of your marriage depends on the choice you have made with regard to your life partner.

Let your partner or spouse be the one you comfortable with, one you can turn to for help or advice. One that stand by you or safe you from danger.

One who is there to help, support, lift or assist you?

One who counsels you, who encourage and care for you

One that covers your nakedness, flaws, shame, who make you and not mar you

One who brings out the best in you no matter what, makes you smile, joyful even in enduring situations


Marriage marks a great beginning

Marriage marks the beginning of the family. It is a life-long commitment that widens your horizons and the purpose of existence on this earth. It gives you an opportunity to be selfless as you will have to now take care of your spouse and children. Marriage is not just a physical union. It is also a spiritual as well as emotional bond. Hence, you will find a kind of fulfillment when you get married.

Promotes oneness

When two people get married, they become one. Marriage is a superior bond than nothing else on the earth. It brings you your life’s partner and a teammate to move together in comradeship facing the challenges, excitements, disappointments, surprises and uncertainties of life. Finally now you have got someone to share your life.

Brings in a higher purpose to your life

Marriage opens up the gates to realizing a higher purpose to your life. You are now enjoined into a life that is tuned to realizing the objectives of each of the family members with you. You work for a larger goal and receive a greater satisfaction. The life seems to be more meaningful after marriage.

The joy of parenting

Parenting is a challenging, exciting and a joyful thing like nothing else. When you produce a child or adopt one, you receive the biggest blessing on the earth you can hope for. Children growing without a father or mother are most likely to be ill-equipped to face the world in the right way. When you have got kids in the family, you have got an opportunity to help a soul understand the world and learn how to live happily and successfully.


Marriage is a powerful creator and sustainer of human and social capital for adults as well as children, about as important as education when it comes to promoting the health, wealth, and well-being of adults and communities. It is not good for man to be alone— or woman.


IT’S SAFER. Marriage lowers the risk that both men and women will become victims of violence, including domestic violence. Two-thirds of acts of violence against women committed by intimate partners were not committed by husbands, but by boyfriends (whether live-in or not) or former husbands or boyfriends.

IT CAN SAVE YOUR LIFE. Married people live longer and healthier lives. The power of marriage is particularly evident in late middle age. Nine out of ten married guys who are alive at 48 will make it to age 65, compared with just six in ten comparable single guys (controlling for race, education, and income). For women, the protective benefits of marriage are also powerful, though not quite as large. Nine out of ten wives alive at age 48 will live to be senior citizens, compared with just eight out of ten divorced and single women.

IT CAN SAVE YOUR KID’S LIFE. Children lead healthier, longer lives, if, parents get and stay married.

YOU WILL EARN MORE MONEY. Men today tend to think of marriage as a consumption item—a financial burden. But a broad and deep body of scientific literature suggests that for men especially, marriage is a productive institution—as important as education in boosting a man’s earnings.

YOU’LL GET MUCH RICHER. Married people not only make more money, they manage money better and build more wealth together than either would alone.

YOU’LL TAME HIS CHEATIN’ HEART (HERS, TOO). Marriage increases sexual fidelity. Cohabiting men are four times more likely to cheat than husbands, and cohabiting women are eight times more likely to cheat than wives. Marriage is also the only realistic promise of permanence in a romantic relationship.

YOU WON’T GO BONKERS. Marriage is good for your mental health. Married men and women are less depressed, less anxious, and less psychologically distressed than single, divorced, or widowed Americans. By contrast, getting divorced lowers men’s and women’s mental health, increasing depression and hostility, and lowering one’s self-esteem and sense of personal mastery and purpose in life.

IT WILL MAKE YOU HAPPY. For most people, the joys of the single life and of divorce are overrated. Overall, 40 percent of married people, compared with about a quarter of singles or cohabiters, say they are “very happy” with life in general. Married people are also only about half as likely as singles or cohabiters to say they are unhappy with their lives.

How happy are the divorced? If people divorce in order to be happy, as we are often told, the majority should demand their money back. Just 18 percent of divorced adults say they are “very happy,” and divorced adults are twice as likely as married folk to say they are “not too happy” with life in general. Only a minority of divorcing adults go on to make marriages that are happier than the one they left. “Divorce or be miserable,” certain cultural voices tell us, but, truth be told, “Divorce and be miserable” is at least as likely an outcome.

YOUR KIDS WILL LOVE YOU MORE. Divorce weakens the bonds between parents and children over the long run. Adult children of divorce describe relationships with both their mother and their father less positively, on average, and they are about 40 percent less likely than adults from intact marriages to say they see either parent at least several times a week.

YOU’LL HAVE BETTER SEX, MORE OFTEN. Despite the lurid Sex in the City marketing that promises singles erotic joys untold, both husbands and wives are more likely to report that they have an extremely satisfying sex life than are singles or cohabiters. (Divorced women were the least likely to have a sex life they found extremely satisfying emotionally.) For one thing, married people are more likely to have a sex life. Single men are 20 times more likely and single women ten times more likely, not to have had sex even once in the past year than the married. (Almost a quarter of single guys and 30 percent of single women lead sexless lives.)


Most people aren’t in a hurry to get married anymore

According to few statistics, back in the early 1980s, the median age for marriage was 25 for men and 22 for women. But in 2011, the median ages for first marriages hit all-time highs of 29 for men and 27 for women. The report credits this change to, among other things, the fact that couples no longer feel the need to be married to become parents and the “competition from other lifestyles,” like living alone or living with partners. So, there’s no need to stress about not getting married — everyone else is staying single too.

Many people feel there aren’t many advantages to being married

In 2010 few survey states that, by and large, single people do not feel married people have many advantages in terms of a “fulfilling sex life, being financially secure, finding happiness and having social status.”

For men, being married could be connected to being overweight

Married men were 25 percent more likely to be overweight than men who were single or in a committed relationship. And according to the study, about 60 percent of married men were overweight compared to about 40 percent of married women.

Marriage can present a slew of financial problems

Laws require those in a marriage to be responsible for their spouse’s debt, and for the elderly, that could mean a variety of expensive medical bills.

Marriage can seem like an outdated institution, and some people just don’t want to fit into that mold

Marriage is a conservative institution that organizes child-rearing and defines commitment, relationship and love.

Getting married can put your friendships at risk

While this probably applies more to folks with mostly single friends, many people sense strains in their friendships after they get married. People tend to lose at least one close friend after getting married, as a husband or wife fills that role. When someone spends every waking hour with their spouse that can lead to neglecting the other people in their life. Which brings us to our next point?

Marriage can lead to the risky habit of relying on one individual for every emotional need

Many married couples make the mistake of turning their spouse into a “Sex and Everything Else Partner.” They look to them for all sources of contentment, like “companionship, intimacy, caring, friendship, advice, the sharing of the tasks and finances of household and family, and just about everything else.” This creates an unrealistic “cultural fantasy” that ultimately results in disappointment and unhappiness.

These days, a happy marriage requires a serious commitment of time and energy that can be hard to maintain

The fact that good marriages require more time and effort than ever is further validated by the differing divorce rates between wealthy couples and their less affluent counterparts. Studies show that lower-income couples get divorced more, and part of the blame lays in those couples’ lack of resources, time and otherwise.

And, as dim as it sounds, plenty of marriages in this country end up in a divorce anyway

Middle-class participants said despite being excited about marriage, they worried about “the social, legal, emotional and economic consequences of divorce.” It seems that the younger you get married, the more likely you are to get a divorce.

It’s called a civil union or a domestic partnership

If you want to form a meaningful (and official) bond with your significant other, but you just don’t like the idea and practice of marriage, you always have the option of entering a civil union or a domestic partnership.


Don’t get married because you are lonely.

Many people find themselves living alone, and eventually get tired of the life of the single person, the bars, the parties, and all the other activities singles indulge in. Living alone is a wonderful time to become a whole person, to get to know yourself and what you like, don’t like, and learn to feel comfortable in your own skin, and satisfied with your own company.

Don’t marry someone to get your friends’ and family’s approval

It is always a nice feeling to make others ecstatic, and we strive to gain the approbation of our friends and family, which isn’t a lamentable thing. Not unless you are with someone you feel no vigorous emotions for, only because your family and friends cerebrate they are such a great guy or gal. You can bask in their approbation only so long, and conclusively, you will require to do Something for yourself, something that makes you blissful inside. Your family And friends should give you their love, support, and approbation because they dote and accept you for who you are, not who you are with.

In the present day society where the people believe in marrying their daughters or even the girls would relish to get married in the society she belongs to but there are many drawbacks, as is most of the cases the compatibility and societal quandaries are there like the case presently in the Bollywood, the people are addicted to falsehood and get into erroneous hands.

Dowry is one of the imprecations of our society and in most of the cases because of authoritative ordinance of dowry, either the girl’s parents or the girl itself trepidations of getting married. There are many other reasons like some people do not believe in getting married. They feel like they do not require the partner’s love or it will not be proved, as thought of and additionally trepidation of being slave in the in-laws house. Though the trust is the main action in marriage, but some people feel that they will not get the trust. Sometimes, the girls do not believe that marriage is an alternative for a good life and dissents with the old cultured society and wants an independent life without any if and buts in their day to day life. Even in some cases, tag of cognomen effect the independence of the girl specially those who want liberation and optate to do whatever they like especially when they are not sure about the person with whom she is going to be wedlock. In marriage, the bride is a centre of attention, which sometimes she does not relish.

As is already been discussed, there are don’ts additionally, which cause lot of stress due to incomplete and incompatibility of each other, consequently, it is one of the other cause not having been married. In some of the cases in their personal or friend circle, they have felt the deplorable feelings for marriage. They are trepidations of having getting the same in her marriage.

It is felt that marriage integrates value to life, but sometimes it is not homogeneous to so. When the girl have optically discerned, their parents or their kenned fighting in or out and one or the other couple not being independent, she is frightened that she do not optate to get married. Few would relish to break the overruled tradition of the man inundating the woman. Since, after marriage the time is devoted towards the other person, who may be boy or girl do not optate to spent or share.

Few people would relish to live a solitary life, so they are trepidations of getting married. Sometimes, due to different maturity levels having different cerebration process, not of compromising nature, not relishing the family or traditions or not believing in desideratum of the other person, people do not get married. In many cases due to job requisites, business or professional exigencies the couples have either to live discretely or does not devote enough time for each other, which ravages the very purport of togetherness, love and affection in marriage and becomes curse for each other.

Despite this, there are reasons for getting married. One of the reasons is that there will be togetherness and there would be a companion with whom one can apportion journey of life. If one feels, marriage is not a compulsion, but a bond for whole life with comity, as a motive and a conscious effort to look into each other’s good or deplorable then it is better to get married.

Another reason for getting married is love and intimacy. Love is the circadian decision to give, accommodate and communicate in the venerable manner and the patience from both the Partners is must, which needs a veracity & independent relationship. The intimacy describes proximity & feeling of warmth. But, if, it is missing then the life becomes hell. Marriage is for one’s support and magnification. Once there is struggle, challenges & differences, the inter personal cognations between the married couple reinforce each other. It is withal one of the biological needs.

The parenthood is additionally one of the reasons for having a marriage. However, the most stable and secure environment is obligatory for magnification of the kids in the mundane family. In Indian society, married men or women get more reverence as well as in their respective families. Despite number of laws having been transmuted, live-in relationship or divorce is still a taboo.

Two adults have the right to live together even if they have not procured marriageable age, the Supreme Court has verbally expressed. In its Judgment, Supreme Court has verbally expressed that if a man and a woman living together without marriage, and then they cannot be construes under offense. Many couples in cities are living together and in most of the cases, their parents are nescient of that. Live-in relationships might be or not be better than marriage, but it gives you a clear perspective about your compatibility with your partner and hence of spending a life with him/her.


Sati was prevalent in Archaic India. The British prosper in bringing XVII Aversion of Sati Act which declares sati illicit and penalizable by courts. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and E.V. Ramasamy Periyar paved the way for gregarious reform. In India, the first kineticism of marital rights of women centered on three major quandaries, child marriage, enforced widowhood, and property rights of women. The Dowry Proscription Act was enacted to curb the dowry menace. It applies to all people, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Jews. The law was found to fail to stall this malevolence. Dowry Death was later enacted. Where the death of the woman occurred in unnatural circumstances within 7 years of marriage and it is shown that she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or his relatives in connection with any ordinant dictation for dowry, it would be postulated to be a dowry death, deemed to be caused by the husband or his relatives.  

As society has advanced the Hindu Marriage has gone through sundry changes. Even values annexed to it have transmuted tremendously.  Individuals now are culling their mates according to their own requisites. Many are not getting into matrimonial coalitions due to some quandaries.

The marriage in India are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act and Special Marriage Act which regulates the Marriage. The provision of divorce has withal availed many people to emerge from their marriage. Thus, as believed Hindu marriage is no more indissoluble.

Please understand marriage is a personal cull not a matter of opinion for the society, do not hesitate to do something or take any action that would avail you live a better life, despite the fact that there are certain Religious acts which can only be performed by a married couple. Moreover, we have Sanatan culture, which does not sanction to live without marriage and have a live-in relationship like in Europe.

The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 contains provisions of delayed payment to Micro and Small Enterprise (MSEs). (Section 15- 24). State Governments to establish Micro and Small Enterprise Facilitation Council (MSEFC) for settlement of disputes on getting references/filing on Delayed payments. (Section 20 and 21).

It is important to note that MSME Act is applicable only to the manufacturers and the Service Providers and the classification of enterprises is as follows:

An enterprise shall be classified as a micro, small or medium enterprise on the basis of the following criteria, namely:–

(i) a micro enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed one crore rupees and turnover does not exceed five crore rupees;

(ii) a small enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed ten crore rupees and turnover does not exceed fifty crore rupees; and

(iii) a medium enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed fifty crore rupees and turnover does not exceed two hundred and fifty crore rupees.

For being a MSME Unit, both the investment and turnover criteria has to be met. Even, if, one exceeds it will be covered under the other category. Thus, the Traders are not covered in this Act, which are the major part in running Industrial Units i.e. the manufacturers.

As per MSME Act, there has to be a Buyer and Seller, which has been appropriately defined in the Act. The ‘buyer’ means whoever buys any goods or receives any services from a supplier for consideration and the ‘supplier’ means a micro or small enterprise, who is having valid Udyog Adhaar through Udhyam Portal.

The Act has laid down the provisions for recovery of delayed/default payments for MSMEs. It provides that where there is delay in payment beyond 45 days from the day of acceptance or day of deemed acceptance of the goods or services, the recoveries of the principal with an interest with monthly rests to the suppliers three times of the Bank rates notified by RBI are to be paid, even if, the practice of agreed terms are different. Meaning thereby that  if there are agreed terms of payments of over 45 days, even then if, the payment is not received within 45 days then the buyer has to pay the principle alongwith the interest.

The MSME through Samadhaan can get the payment, if, there is default in payment beyond 45 days irrespective of dispute, if any. The dispute or the delayed payment of dues is to be redressed by MSME Facilitation Council to whom reference has to be made, who will conduct the conciliation proceedings or if, conciliation is not successful then through arbitration proceedings under the provisions of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 as amended from time to time. Mostly, conciliation is successful between the parties through the Council.

It is important to note that if, the conciliation is not successful then it shall be automatically terminated and the Council can refer the matter for arbitration, which has to be decided within 90 days. Generally, it is seen that the dispute or delayed payment is settled through mediation. In case of unsuccessful mediation, arbitration is there, which is a mode for recovery and is an alternative to civil / criminal litigation.

It is fast track legal dispute redressal system, as referred the matter is to be resolved within 90 days by the Facilitation Council. Composition of Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council is as follows:

  • The Micro and Small Enterprise Facilitation Council shall consist of not less than three, but not more than five members to be appointed from amongst the following categories, namely:
  • Director of Industries, by whatever name called, or any other officer not below the rank of such Director, in the Department of the State Government having administrative control of the small scale industries or, as the case may be, micro, small and medium enterprises; and
  • One or more office-bearers or representatives of associations of micro or small industry or enterprises in the State; and
  • One or more representatives of banks and financial institutions lending to micro or small enterprises; or
  • One or more persons having special knowledge in the field of industry, finance, law, trade or commerce.
  • The person appointed under clause (i) of sub-section (1) shall be the Chairperson of the Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council.
  • The composition of the Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council, the manner of filling vacancies of its members and the procedure to be followed in the discharge of their functions by the members shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.

Thus, the substantial powers for redressal of disputes have been delegated to the State Government, without considering the plight of the industry at the Central level.

The procedure is as per the Arbitration Act. The Appeal has to be filed with prior payment of 75{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} of the award to be paid to the Seller.

It is informed that the FAQ has been prepared by the office of DC(MSME), Ministry of MSME after consulting the legal persons in the field and information available.

MSME Samadhaan is a Portal created by Office of DC(MSME), Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) where Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) having Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum (UAM) can file their applications online regarding delayed payments. MSME SAMADHAAN online portal is developed by Ministry of MSME only to facilitate MSEs filing of their applications regarding delayed payments online. The application once filed is forwarded automatically online to the concerned Micro and Small Enterprise Facilitation Council (MSEFC) established by the State/UTs as per the provisions of MSMED-Act 2006. Action on the applications regarding delayed payment is taken by the concerned MSEFC only. Only the MSEFCs have been empowered as per MSMED Act, 2006 for taking decisions regarding its reference made with them.

Ministry of MSME does not intervene in the matters of MSEFC being individual functioning. MSME Samadhaan Portal has been created only to facilitate online applications regarding delayed payments. Physical applications can also be filed at the concerned MSEFC and the applications are converted into case by the concerned MSEFC. Thus, after submission, the application is automatically forwarded online to concerned MSEFC. Therefore, concerned MSEFC is to be contacted after filing the application online on MSME Samadhaan Portal. The contact address of concerned MSEFC is mentioned on the acknowledgement sent on the registered email of the applicant. The work order is compulsory for filing the application. However, in case purchase order is oral an affidavit to that effect is to be submitted. Multiple invoices can be combined into single PDF and can be uploaded. The affidavit of oral purchase order is to be included in single PDF. The OTP is sent to the registered email ID in Udyog Aadhaar.

Categories admitted in MSEFCs are in respect of goods manufacturing and service rendering sector for which UAM has been obtained. These categories cannot be challenged by the respondent/buyer. Application under Section 19 of the MSMED Act, 2006 cannot be entertained by any court. Deposited amount can be released to the applicant as per the directions to the Court. It is the act of court for which applicant cannot suffer. The silence of buyer is confirmation of liabilities upon him.

The 90 days period of settlement of claim begins only after notice of Arbitration under Section 18(3) of MSMED Act, 2006. The council should deliver a conciliation award after the successful conciliation. It is called award by mutual consent. It is valid award and buyer cannot make appeal against it. Council Members are judges having equal power. They should be well-versed in factual aspect of the case before them. Under administrative exigencies, the Chairperson can delegate the presiding power to another subordinate official or another member, but, the meeting/proceeding can take place, if Coram of three members is complete, members can elect the Chairperson and take further proceedings.

It is necessary to mention why Chairperson could not attend the hearing. There is provision for a Member Secretary as council Member and he can act as a Member in case of any exigency. Member Secretary is acting as Registrar of MSEFC and judge also when he sits in Council. A legal notice by the supplier to buyer is not necessary before filling the case in the Council. But, a claim can be filed for interest alone where the claimant has received principal of dues already. Only the claim under Section 6 of Interest on Delayed Payments to Small Scale and Ancillary Industrial Undertaking Act, 1993 if pending, before IFC or Civil Courts, they can be considered. However, to approach the MSEFC, liberty of court is to be obtained on earlier claims.

If there is a false claim from the applicant, a penalty cannot be imposed by Council, but the petition is to be rejected summarily. A grace period given for MSEs registration to the supplier can be considered while entertaining the claim. It is not hurdle in the matter of claim. The receivables from buyer such as advance deposit, EMD, Statutory deposits as other than supply of goods and services can be claimed in the claim before the Council, which includes in the total due amount. Breach of contract is not within scope of MSMED Act, 2006. Rejection of goods should be genuine within 15 days of the receipt of goods and its immediate communication to supplier. The penal interest is calculated on a monthly compounding basis.

The jurisdiction of State Council can be extended to a district where no council is available. The power of dissent to a member of Council in the proceedings is available and recording in minutes is to be done, but majority decision prevails. If the conciliation conducted by Council fails, Council can take up Arbitration automatically, but diverse view is taken by Bombay High Court. Hon’ble Supreme Court says that conciliation and arbitration are the legally vested functions of the Council. It is not necessary for Full Council to conduct conciliation. It is sufficient for Chairman or any member alone to participate in conciliation. It is not commercial conciliation or analysis of various contractual liabilities. It is simple arbitration to get compliance of Section 16 of MSMED Act, 2006.

State Government under Section 20 of MSMED Act, 2006 is empowered to constitute additional Councils. The process/procedure of execution of Award and the role of Council in assisting the Claimant is under Section 36 of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 as amended from time to time. The Council has no power to review, revise or amend its own award. After final award it becomes “Funcous officio” means having no relation to award. A Government Department as a buyer can be proceeded against in the Council.

Whenever a notice is received by Council from an Appellate Court to represent as witness, the Council is not required to appear in any court as it is only a formal party. There is no limit of pecuniary jurisdiction for State and District Council. The date of receipt of the copy of award is only effective date. If amount is claimed in the Civil Court, then it cannot be claimed before MSEFC. If an Appellate Court reverts back the case to the Council, it is to be decided as per instructions of the Higher Court. In case of IBC proceedings, the Award by MSEFC is to be communicated to Interim Resolution Professional (IRP) and then to NCLT as per procedural law. An Award holder from MSEFC can gain any preference as creditor in Insolvency proceedings. The Award Holder is considered as a secured creditor. Notices should be served to a dissolved buyer firm and partners even if subsequently reconstituted/merged with a new entity in partnership liabilities are unlimited. It is a lengthy procedure as first claim is to be kept alive. Council cannot deal with criminal offences related to subject matter of claim.

The request of any party to have representation by an attorney or any other authorized agent can be allowed by Council by way of irrevocable power of Attorney. His commitment must be binding upon buyer. Resolution is required for this. No limitation is applicable in Arbitration by Council, as law of limitation is not applicable. But, delay and latches principle is applicable. Supplier sleeping over his legal rights cannot get assistance of Council. It is only summery proceedings and on the basis of affidavits of both the parties, the dispute can be resolved.

The MSMED Act, 2006 is set in motion after supplies of goods and services made by supplier and buyer accepts them but does not pay the bill within 45 days. Petition with Purchase Order, Bills, delivery challans of goods and services and demand letter etc. are to be kept if the matter is challenged in any higher court. In any other case, where the amount is already realized by the supplier, it is at the discretion of the MSEFC. Notices can be served by e-mail/SMS/Whattsapp because Email is legal document and even Whattsapp. The claim should be submitted in hard copy because it is necessary as submission is required duly signed and verified.

The notice of Council is to be published in daily Newspaper of the area where the Respondent is located, with the orders of Council after 3 notices are issued. It is at the discretion of the MSEFC Council and it can exercise its own diligence by giving opportunity to the applicant since he has to prove his claim before council. When the supplier is a micro or small enterprises and agreement is made between Micro/ Small Enterprises in India. Goods are purchased/taken by foreign buyer and he returns to his country. Payment terms are not honored in these circumstances, matter can be filed before the Council. After following due procedure of law, the Council can issue award and same could be sent to both Consulates i.e. Foreign buyers Consulate in that country. It can be enforced.

A private Arbitration clause in sale contract prevents admission of claim for Arbitration by Council. The proceedings can be conducted in local language, but with English also so that Higher Court should understand later on. Claim preparation is the responsibility of the claimant. It is advisable to get certified from C.A. Deceased buyer is liable through his legal heirs, but dissolved company is always under some authority and claim is maintainable.

A Company through its M.D. with resolution of Board of Directors and Partnership firms through its Managing Partner/s. It is absolutely necessary to have purchase/work order as evidence. A Council cannot allow secondary and corroborated evidence. Acknowledgement on invoice, delivery challans or part payment, email etc. all are accepted. Members of Council are not liable for prosecution, if inadvertently an erroneous judgment is delivered by the Council. On the contrary they are expected to act without fear and favour.

Chairman has no veto power in judging a case. No GM, DIC is ex-officio member in Council and any new official in his official position can take over as Chairman. An Award should be with seal of the Council. Original is to be retained by the MSEFC and only certified copies to be delivered. Award should bear round seal on every page. The consent of absentee members for Award can be obtained by circulation to fulfil quorum requirement. The Coram of three Members physically is must.

It looks on the paper a fast track legal disputes redressal system, as the recoveries are very fast and as the award has to be given within 90 days of the reference made is a decree in itself. But, it is seen that this is not actual state of affairs for MSME Act, as generally as we have seen that when human intervention is there, there is always delayed decisions despite the fact that there is Champions Portal, which means Creation and Harmonious Application of Modern Processes for Increasing the Output and National Strength.

The single window system for the MSMEs 

It has been felt necessary to put up and promote a unified, empowered, robust, bundled and technology driven platform for helping and promoting the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of the country. As the name suggests it will aim at Creation and Harmonious Application of Modern Processes for Increasing the Output and National Strength. Accordingly, the name of the system is CHAMPIONS. This is basically for making the smaller units big by helping and handholding, in particular, by solving their problems and grievances

Three basic objectives of the CHAMPIONS: 

  1. To help the MSMEs in this difficult situation in terms of finance, raw materials, labour, permissions, etc.
  2. To help the MSMEs capture new opportunities in manufacturing and services sectors.
  3. To identify the sparks i.e. the bright MSMEs who can withstand at present and become national and international champions.

As the composition & decision is to be taken by Micro & Small Enterprise Facilitation Council and is to be created and decided by State Government., the Act does not provide the provisions within what time the State Government has to constitute the Facilitation Council or to hold the meetings to decide the issue.

The experience says either there is delay in constitution of Facilitation Council and even when the said Council has been constituted, no meetings are held for disposal of application reference made under the Act for getting default payment recoveries. The Government must consider this aspect seriously and the Act is to be amended in such a way that minimum human intervention is there and there is maximum period to be allowed for Facilitation Council to get the award from date of reference including creation of the Facilitation Council, holding meetings, issuance of Notices, adjournment of hearings and holding of conciliation and arbitration proceedings, as maximum period to decide all legal issues of 300 days from the date of acceptance of application by adjudication authority is under IBC.

Therefore, under this Act also, such provisions has to be laid down otherwise on one or the other ground, the buyer tries to get the matter delayed in Facilitation Council and the purpose of laying the said provisions is forfeited.

The government’s move to change the definition of the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to assist companies in dealing with the COVID-19 aftermath, has brought about a surprising and welcome change. India is now a country of small businesses with over 99 percent of companies falling under this category. The introduction of the twin factors of investment and turnover over the earlier definition based only on investment on plant and machinery has brought about this change.

The earlier definition based on investment in machinery and equipment was to get the main benefit of excise duty relief apart from other government benefits. Excise duty has been done away with the introduction of GST.

An enterprise shall be classified as a micro, small or medium enterprise on the basis of the following criteria, namely: —

(i) a micro enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed one crore rupees and turnover does not exceed five crore rupees;

(ii) a small enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed ten crore rupees and turnover does not exceed fifty crore rupees; and

(iii) a medium enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed fifty crore rupees and turnover does not exceed two hundred and fifty crore rupees.

Government has organised a full system of Facilitation for Registration Process:

  • An enterprise for the purpose of this process will be known as Udyam and its Registration Process will be known as ‘Udyam Registration’
  • A permanent registration number will be given after registration.
  • After completion of the process of registration, a certificate will be issued online.
  • This certificate will have a dynamic QR Code from which the web page on the Portal and details about the enterprise can be accessed.
  • There will be no need for renewal of Registration.
  • The single window systems at Champions Control Rooms and at DICs will help you in the process.
  • Registration Process is totally free. No Costs or Fees are to be paid to anyone.

MSME Registration is free, paperless and based on self- declaration

  • MSME registration process is fully online, paperless and based on self-declaration.
  • No documents or proof are required to be uploaded for registering an MSME.
  • Only Adhaar Number will be enough for registration.
  • PAN & GST linked details on investment and turnover of enterprises will be taken automatically from Government data bases.
  • The online system will be fully integrated with Income Tax and GSTIN systems.
  • Having PAN & GST number is mandatory from 01.04.2021.
  • Those who have EM-II or UAM registration or any other registration issued by any authority under the Ministry of MSME, will have to re-register themselves.
  • No enterprise shall file more than one Udyam Registration. However, any number of activities including manufacturing or service or both may be specified or added in one Registration.

Register a Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise

  • Any person who intends to establish a micro, small or medium enterprise may file Udyam Registration online in the Udyam Registration portal, based on self-declaration with no requirement to upload documents, papers, certificates or proof.
  • On registration, an enterprise (referred to as “Udyam” in the Udyam Registration portal) will be assigned a permanent identity number to be known as “‘Udyam Registration Number”.
  • An e-certificate, namely, “Udyam Registration Certificate” shall be issued on completion of the registration process.


  • The form for registration shall be as provided in the Udyam Registration portal.
  • Aadhaar number shall be required for Udyam Registration.
  • The Aadhaar number shall be of the proprietor in the case of a proprietorship firm, of the managing partner in the case of a partnership firm and of a karta in the case of a Hindu Undivided Family (HUF).
  • In case of a Company or a Limited Liability Partnership or a Cooperative Society or a Society or a Trust, the organisation or its authorised signatory shall provide its GSTIN and PAN along with its Aadhaar number.
  • In case an enterprise is duly registered as an Udyam with PAN, any deficiency of information for previous years when it did not have PAN shall be filled up on self-declaration basis.
  • No enterprise shall file more than one Udyam Registration: Provided that any number of activities including manufacturing or service or both may be specified or added in one Udyam Registration.
  • Whoever intentionally misrepresents or attempts to suppress the self-declared facts and figures appearing in the Udyam Registration or updation process shall be liable to such penalty as specified under section 27 of the Act.

Section 27 of MSME Act provides:

27. Penalty for contravention of section 8 or section 22 or section 26.—

(1) Whoever intentionally contravenes or attempts to contravene or abets the contravention of any of the provisions contained in sub-section (1) of section 8 or sub-section (2) of section 26 shall be punishable—

(a) in the case of the first conviction, with fine which may extend to rupees one thousand; and

(b) in the case of any second or subsequent conviction, with fine which shall not be less than rupees one thousand but may extend to rupees ten thousand.

(2) Where a buyer contravenes the provisions of section 22, he shall be punishable with a fine which shall not be less than rupees ten thousand.


  • All existing enterprises registered under EM–Part-II or UAM shall register again on the Udyam Registration portal on or after the 1st day of July, 2020.
  • All enterprises registered till 30th June, 2020, shall be reclassified in accordance with this notification.
  • The existing enterprises registered prior to 30th June, 2020, shall continue to be valid only for a period up to the 31st day of March, 2021.
  • An enterprise registered with any other organisation under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises shall register itself under Udyam Registration.

Spirited enquiry by the government to further plug the gaps

The GST data now reveals that almost 99 per cent of businesses now fall into the MSME definition on the turnover criteria, and more than half the companies registered with GST have less than 20 lakh turnover. The export turnover criteria has also been excluded from the definition, providing relief support to several units while allowing them to grow bigger without restriction. The Income tax department’s data and analysis show that after considering the depreciation of assets, only a few thousand firms in India have an investment in machinery and equipment that exceeds Rs. 50 crore, the upper limit of the medium enterprise.

Encouraged on by the information released by the GST authorities, the government now intends to fill the gaps using the IT and GST data. The MSME ministry has detected that one Aadhaar number can be used to create up to five Udyog Aadhaar numbers, the unique number given by the MSME ministry to the small businesses that register with them. Business enterprises can now develop into multiple, separate supportive entities and continue to claim all the benefits given by the government.

As per latest RBI Notification Number FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.4/06.02.31/2020-21 dated 21.08.2020, clarifications regarding new definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises is as follows:

The circular FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.3/06.02.31/2020-21 dated July 2, 2020 on ‘Credit flow to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Sector’.

2. In view of the representations from IBA and banks regarding applicability of certain aspects contained in the Gazette notification No. S.O. 2119(E) dated June 26, 2020 on new criteria for classifying the enterprises as micro, small and medium enterprises, the Ministry of MSME, vide their Office Memorandum (OM) No.2/1(5)/2019 – P & G/Policy (pt. IV) dated August 6, 2020 and letter F.No.5/2(2)/2020 – P & G/Policy dated August 13, 2020 has, inter alia, clarified the following:

2.1 Classification of Enterprises as per new definition

(i) Classification / re-classification of MSMEs is the statutory responsibility of the GoI, Ministry of MSME, as per the provisions of the MSMED Act, 2006.

(ii) As per para 2 of the said Gazette notification all enterprises are required to register online and obtain ‘Udyam Registration Certificate’. All lenders may, therefore, obtain ‘Udyam Registration Certificate ’from the entrepreneurs.

2.2 Validity of EM Part II and UAMs issued till June 30, 2020

(i) The existing Entrepreneurs Memorandum (EM) Part II and Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum (UAMs) of the MSMEs obtained till June 30, 2020 shall remain valid till March 31, 2021. Further, all enterprises registered till June 30, 2020, shall file new registration in the Udyam Registration Portal well before March 31, 2021.

(ii) ‘Udyam Registration Certificate’ issued on self-declaration basis for enterprises exempted from filing GSTR and / or ITR returns will be valid for the time being, upto March 31, 2021.

2.3 Value of Plant and Machinery or Equipment

The online form for Udyam Registration captures depreciated cost as on 31st March each year of the relevant previous year. Therefore, the value of Plant and Machinery or Equipment for all purposes of the Notification No. S.O. 2119(E) dated June 26, 2020 and for all the enterprises shall mean the Written Down Value (WDV) as at the end of the Financial Year as defined in the Income Tax Act and not cost of acquisition or original price, which was applicable in the context of the earlier classification criteria.

3. In view of the above, instructions contained in circular FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.10/06.02.31/2017-18 dated July 13, 2017 on ‘Investment in plant and machinery for the purpose of classification as Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises – documents to be relied upon’ are superseded.

4. Further, other instructions contained in circular FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.3/06.02.31/2020-21 dated July 2, 2020 remains the same.

If, written down value is to be taken then it has to be as per Income Tax Act, 1961 rates but, no where specified at what rates whether on SLM or WDV basis. This is an anomaly. If, the assets were appreciated by the enterprise then what is to be taken as investment. The Government must come out with clarification on this.

It is important to note that the MSME covers only the manufacturing and service sector and not the Traders, which are in large numbers in the Country. They have to take huge amount of money from the manufacturing sector. Thus, the trading community must be included in MSME sector.

Dharma Beliefs:

Almost in every house, who believes in Sanatan Dharma, one may found Tulsi (Ocimum Sactum/Holy Basil).  It is basically found in Indian Sub-continent. It is considered a sacred plant. It is also called “Vrinda” in Sanatan Dharma or in Hindu belief Goddess Tulsi is called “Vrinda”. It is regarded as avtar of Lakshmi and thus the consort of God Vishnu.

In ritual worship of Vishnu and his avtars like Krishna & Vithoba, generally it is mandatory to offer the leaves of Tulsi. It is also traditional & cultural, the plant is grown in front of the house or the central courtyard. According to some mythological story, it was said that Tulsi is actually an ardent lover of Krishna whom Radha has cursed to be a plant. Hindus believe that every house that has Tulsi plant is a place of pilgrimage and unnatural death can never enter. Even the withering of Tulsi indicates that some bad is going to happen in the house.

Mythological Story (Religious Views):

According to another Hindu mythological story, a demon named Jalandhar has a wife called Vrinda. Jalandhar penanced and got a boon that he will live till eternity until he loses his Krishna kavach (his armor) and his wife loses her chastity. But when the demon started created havoc in all the three worlds, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva thought of ending up his life. Then Lord Vishnu approached Jalandhar and asked for Krishna kavach which Jalandhar gives off in a weak moment.

Then, Lord Shiva fights with Jalandhar while Lord Vishnu disguises himself as Jalandhar and breaches his wife’s chastity. This breaks the boon he was given and Jalandhar gets killed.

When Vrinda came to know the fact, she hated Lord Shiva for killing her husband. She cursed Vishnu to become a black stone and to stay away from his wife Lakshmi. Feeling betrayed, Vrinda jumps into the ocean and sacrifices her life. Lord Vishnu transforms her soul into a plant and names it as Tulsi.

Lord Vishnu gets turned into Saligrama and the curse of being away from wife gets into reality during Ramavatar. Vishnu in the form of Saligrama is married to Tulsi on Prabodhini Ekadasi which is commemorated as the day of Tulsi Vivah. Later, Tulsi attains a divine status and was blessed to be the dearest of Lord Vishnu. Hence Lord Vishnu is always worshipped with Tulsi leaves.

There is another story, which narrates that the creator God Brahma reside in the branches. All Hindu pilgrimage centres reside in its roots, the Ganges flows within its roots, all deities are in its stem and its leaves, and that the most sacred Hindu texts, the Vedas are found in the upper part of the holy basil’s branches. A person who waters and cares for the Tulsi daily is believed to gain moksha (salvation) and the divine grace of Vishnu, even if he does not worship it. Traditionally, the daily worship and care of the plant is the responsibility of the women of the household. Though daily worship is prescribed, Tuesdays and Fridays are considered especially sacred for Tulsi worship.

According to legend, she was the wife of demon Shankhchud who was killed by Lord Shiva. Hence, offering Tulsi leaves to Shiva is prohibited. It is considered inauspicious to pluck Tulsi leaves on Sundays and Ekadashi. Hence, the practice should be avoided.

Tulsi leaves should not be plucked even after sunlight. It is believed in Sanatan Dharma that if any particular pooja or program is happening anywhere, it is necessary to use the Basil leaves in it or else the pooja is not completed without it. Tulsi plant is considered auspicious in the house. Tulsi or holy Basil is a sacred plant according to Hindu belief.

There is generation of heat energy in the dormant and serene sattvik frequencies present in the Tulsi plant by the touch of women which leads to decrease in its sattvikta (sattva quality). Hence they are prohibited from gathering or plucking the Tulsi leaves.

Though there are such references in certain scriptures that Tulsi plucking can be avoided on Purnima, Amavasya, Dvadashi, Sunday, lunar eclipse, a vaishnava should avoid “Dvadasi day” to pluck Tulsi leaves. So the devotee in order to not to disturb or hurt her, don’t pluck leaves.

Tulsi needs high amount of water. If you water in the morning, the plant dries up by the evening. This happens even when I used plastic pots to reduce evaporation. So disbalance of watering can be a reason of dying.

Tulsi leaves should not be plucked by women

The reason behind this popular belief might just shock you. It is believed that women have a high proportion of raja component when compared to men. There is generation of heat energy in the dormant and serene sattvik frequencies present in the tulsi plant by the touch of women which leads to decrease in its sattvikta (sattva quality). Hence they are prohibited from gathering or plucking the tulsi leaves.


Tulsi Vivah:

A ceremony known as Tulsi Vivah is performed by the Hindus between Prabodhini Ekadashi (eleventh lunar day of the waxing moon of Kartika) to Kartik Poornima (full moon in Kartika), usually on the eleventh or the twelfth lunar day. It is the ceremonial wedding of the Tulsi plant to Vishnu, in the form of his image, Shaligram or a Krishna or Rama image.

In worship of other deities:

Set of Japa mala, made from Tulsi wood, with head bead in foreground.

Vaishnavas traditionally use japa malas (a string of Hindu prayer beads) made from Tulsi stems or roots called Tulsi malas, which are an important symbol of the initiation. Tulsi malas are considered to be auspicious for the wearer, and believed to connect him with Vishnu or Krishna and confer the protection of the deity.

There are conflicting accounts about Tulsi leaves being used in the worship of the God Shiva, a rival sect (Shaiva) God to the Vaishnava Vishnu. While Bael leaves are often offered to Shiva, some authors note that Tulsi may also be offered to him. Tulsi worship is sometimes regarded the worship of Shiva, conveying the deity’s omnipresence. Shiva’s aniconic symbol – the linga – is sometimes prescribed to have made from the black soil from the roots of the Tulsi plant. However, Tulsi is taboo in worship of the Devi – the Hindu Divine Mother as the pungent aroma of the Tulsi plant angers her. It is also important for the worship of Hanuman. In Orissa, the Tulsi plant represents all local deities and rituals to propitiate them are offered in front of the plant. The Nayars of Malabar offer Tulsi plants to pacify evil spirits.

Importance in Sanatna Dharma:

In Srimad Bhagavatam,the significance of the Tulsi over other plants is described as:

Although flowering plants like the mandāra, kunda, kurabaka, utpala, campaka, arṇa, punnāga, nāgakeśara, bakula, lily and pārijāta are full of transcendental fragrance, they are still conscious of the austerities performed by Tulsi, for Tulsi is given special preference by the Lord, who garlands Himself with Tulsi leaves

— Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto 4, Chapter 15, Verse 19[19]

Every part of the Tulsi plant is revered and considered sacred. Even the soil around the plant is holy. The Padma Purana declares a person who is cremated with Tulsi twigs in his funeral pyre gains moksha and a place in Vishnu’s abode Vaikuntha.

Kinds of Tulsi:

There are three types of Tulsi described in Hindy mythology. Ocimum tenuiflorum (or Ocimum sanctum L.) includes two botanically and phytochemically distinct cultivars that include Rama or Sri Tulsi (green leaves) and Krishna or Shyama Tulsi (purplish leaves), while Ocimum gratissimum is a third type of Tulsi known as Vana or wild/forest Tulsi (dark green leaves). The different Tulsi types exhibit vast diversity in morphology and phytochemical composition including secondary metabolites, yet they can be distinguished from other Ocimum species by the colour of their yellow pollen, high levels of eugenol, and smaller chromosome number. Despite being distinct species with Ocimum tenuiflorum having six times less DNA than Ocimum gratissimum, they are traditionally used in the same way to treat similar ailments. For consistency, this review uses the term Tulsi to refer to both Ocimum tenuiflorum or Ocimum gratissimum.

Religious Views:

Why no water offered on Sunday?

There is no reason for not watering Tulsi plant on Sunday. Like any other plant, Tulsi is also one. However care needs to be taken to give it only right amount of water. In order to optimise amount of water a practice of weekly off has been introduced.

Often we water it in the evening as well but that is the wrong way of keeping the plant healthy or as per Vastu getting the right benefits of the “Tulsi plant”. Never water the plant in the evening. “Tulsi plant” is a very important for many Indian households.

Tulsi leaves should not be plucked on Sunday

As per the Padma Purana “Any person, who picks Tulsi leaves on Dvadashi, falls into a grievously hellish planet to suffer.”The philosophy behind this is that Tulsi Maharani, the pure devotee of the Lord, observes a fast on these days. So the devotee in order to not to disturb or hurt her, don’t pluck leaves. I am not able to establish much logic here but I assume that this tradition would have came into being to discourage the plucking of leafs for environment purposes.

Divine Tulsi:

In Sanatan Dharma, Tulsi is worshipped as a goddess and every part of the Tulsi plant is revered and considered sacred, including the leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and oil. Even the surrounding soil, which has recently been found to harbor beneficial endophytic fungi is considered an aspect of the divine. As such, Hindi households are considered incomplete without a Tulsi plant, typically in an ornate earthen pot situated in a courtyard where Tulsi serves both practical and ceremonial purposes. For example, Tulsi’s distinct clove-like aroma arising from its high eugenol content serves to link the householder to the divine while also repelling mosquitoes, flies and other harmful insects. Tulsi is further integrated into daily life through evening and morning rituals and other spiritual and purification practices that can involve ingesting its leaves or consuming Tulsi tea.

In addition to sanctifying the home, Tulsi is used ceremonially in Sanatan Dharma and some Greek Orthodox Churches to create “holy water.” Tulsi wood or seeds are also used to make Tulsi malas, which are strings of beads used to help the mind focus during meditation, chanting and devotional practices and therefore ceremonially connect mind, body and spirit. Tulsi has also been used in cities to combat air pollution and hundreds of thousands of Tulsi plants have been planted around the Taj Mahal in Agra to help protect the iconic marble building from environmental pollution damage.

Tulsi as an Elixir

Tulsi or holy Basil is used in Indian Sub-continent and been used within ayurvedic medicines more than 3000 years. It is an ayurvedic system, It is referred to as an “Elixir of Life” for its healing powers. In the Indian Materia Medica, Tulsi leaf extracts are described for treatment of many diseases like bronchitis, rheumatism, and pyrexia. The juice of leaves has been applied as a drop for ear ache, while the tea infusion has been used for treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders. The roots and stems were also traditionally used to treat mosquito and snake bites and for malaria.

In numerous study, Tulsi leaf having potent pharmacological actions that include adaptogenic, metabolic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, radioprotective, antimicrobial and antidiabetic effects that have been extensively reviewed previously.

Ayurveda and lifestyle medicine:

As a science of life and the world’s oldest medical system, it uses and draws upon India’s incredible biodiversity with a variety that is unsurpassed by any medical system; yet, of all the herbs used, none has a status comparable to Tulsi or holy basil (Ocimum sanctum).

Tulsi: A potent adaptogen:

Tulsi is an aromatic shrub in the basil family Lamiaceae (tribe ocimeae) that is thought to have originated in north central India and now grows native throughout the eastern world tropics.[2] Within Ayurveda, Tulsi is known as “The Incomparable One,” “Mother Medicine of Nature” and “The Queen of Herbs,” and is revered as an “elixir of life” that is without equal for both its medicinal and spiritual properties. Within India, Tulsi has been adopted into spiritual rituals and lifestyle practices that provide a vast array of health benefits that are just beginning to be confirmed by modern science. This emerging science on Tulsi, which reinforces ancient Ayurvedic wisdom, suggests that Tulsi is a tonic for the body, mind and spirit that offers solutions to many modern day health problems.

Tulsi is perhaps one of the best examples of Ayurveda’s holistic lifestyle approach to health. Tulsi tastes hot and bitter and is said to penetrate the deep tissues, dry tissue secretions and normalize kapha and vata. Daily consumption of Tulsi is said to prevent disease, promote general health, wellbeing and longevity and assist in dealing with the stresses of daily life. Tulsi is also credited with giving luster to the complexion, sweetness to the voice and fostering beauty, intelligence, stamina and a calm emotional disposition. In addition to these health-promoting properties, Tulsi is recommended as a treatment for a range of conditions including anxiety, cough, asthma, diarrhea, fever, dysentery, arthritis, eye diseases, otalgia, indigestion, hiccups, vomiting, gastric, cardiac and genitourinary disorders, back pain, skin diseases, ringworm, insect, snake and scorpion bites and malaria.

Considered as a potent adaptogen, Tulsi has a unique combination of pharmacological actions that promote wellbeing and resilience.

The studies reveal that Tulsi has a unique combination of actions that include: Antimicrobial (including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, anthelmintic), mosquito repellent, anti-diarrheal, anti-oxidant, anti-cataract, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, radioprotective, hepato-protective, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-hypertensive, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory, central nervous system depressant, memory enhancement, anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive, diaphoretic, anti-thyroid, anti-fertility, anti-ulcer, anti-emetic, anti-spasmodic, anti-arthritic, adaptogenic, anti-stress, anti-cataract, anti-leukodermal and anti-coagulant activities. These pharmacological actions help the body and mind cope with a wide range of chemical, physical, infectious and emotional stresses and restore physiological and psychological function.

Protection and detoxification:

Many of the physiological benefits of Tulsi can be attributed to its ability to assist with the body’s internal housekeeping and protection of the body from toxin-induced damage. These functions are often attributed to Tulsi’s high content of phenolic compounds and anti-oxidant properties, with Krishna Tulsi (black/purple variety) having a higher phenolic content and anti-oxidant capacity than white Vana (wild) Tulsi.

Toxicant stress: Chemicals, heavy metals and radiation:

The ability of Tulsi to protect against the damaging effects of various toxicants has been documented in numerous experimental studies. These studies attest to the ability of Tulsi to prevent liver, kidney and brain injury by protecting against the genetic, immune and cellular damage caused by pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. Thus, Tulsi has been shown to protect against the toxic effects of industrial chemicals such as butylparaben, carbon tetrachloride, copper sulfate and ethanol, and common pesticides such as rogor, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and lindane. Tulsi has also been shown to protect against the toxic effects of many pharmaceuticals drugs including acetaminophen, meloxicam, paracetamol, haloperidol and anti-tubercular drugs.

In addition to protecting against toxic chemicals, Tulsi has also been shown to protect against the toxic effects of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and mercury and the toxic effects of radiation. Tulsi exerts its radio-protective effects by scavenging free radicals and reducing the oxidative cellular and chromosomal damage induced by radiation, thereby reducing organ damage and enhancing postradiation survival in experimental animals.

Physical stress:

The actions that protect against the toxic effects of chemicals and radiation also help to address the toxic effects of many physical stressors. Prolonged physical exertion, physical restraint, exposure to cold and excessive noise disturb homeostasis by inducing physiological and metabolic stress.

Metabolic stress:

Metabolic stress due to poor diet, low physical activity and psychological stress is a prominent feature of modern lifestyles and “metabolic syndrome” is estimated to affect as much as one-third of modern populations. Metabolic syndrome, also known as “prediabetes” or “Syndrome X,” includes the “deadly quartet” of centripetal obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and poor glucose regulation and is associated with chronic inflammation and a greater risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke. While the exact causes of metabolic syndrome are still being debated, there is evidence to suggest that Tulsi can assist in dealing with many features of metabolic syndrome and their consequences.

Numerous test tube and animal experiments as well as human clinical trials have shown that Tulsi has anti-diabetic activity. Studies using diabetic laboratory animals have shown that Tulsi can reduce blood glucose, correct abnormal lipid profiles and protect the liver and kidneys from the metabolic damage caused by high glucose levels. Tulsi has also been shown to improve lipid profiles, prevent weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance and protect the organs and blood vessels from atherosclerosis in laboratory animals fed high-fat diets. Similarly, in human clinical trials, Tulsi has shown to decrease glucose levels, improve blood pressure and lipid profiles and reduce many diabetic symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes. The beneficial metabolic effects of Tulsi are multiple and include protecting the liver, kidneysand pancreatic islet cells from free radical damage; enhancing liver bile acid synthesis and reducing liver lipid synthesis; enhancing insulin secretion and action; lowering cortisol levels; and reducing inflammation. The anti-inflammatory action of Tulsi, which has been observed in both acute and chronic inflammatory models in animals is attributed to Tulsi’s eugenol and linoleic acid content and the inhibition of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. This enables Tulsi to exert anti-inflammatory effects comparable to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as phenylbutazone,[68] ibuprofen, naproxen, aspirin[69] and indomethacin.

Infection protection:

Modern research has revealed that Tulsi has anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal activity that includes activity against many pathogens responsible for human infections. Tulsi has also been shown to boost defenses against infective threats by enhancing immune responses in non stressed and stressed animals and healthy humans.  While no human trials have been published, there is experimental evidence that Tulsi may help in the treatment of various human bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, skin and wound infections, typhoid fever, cholera, tuberculosis, gonorrhea,acne, herpes simplex, leishmaniasis, various pneumonias and fungal infections as well as mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria and filariasis.

Tulsi’s broad-spectrum activity, which includes activity against Streptococcus mutans, the organism responsible for tooth decay, further suggests that it can be used as a herbal mouth wash for treating bad breath, gum disease and mouth ulcers. This has been confirmed in clinical trials that have demonstrated that rinsing with Tulsi is as effective as 0.2{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} Chlorhexidine and Listerine in reducing the levels of Streptococcus mutans and that a herbal mouthwash that includes Tulsi is preferred for its taste and convenience.

Tulsi’s unique combination of antibacterial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities also makes it useful in wound healing. This is supported by experimental evidence that has shown that Tulsi can increase wound-breaking strength and accelerate wound healing in laboratory animals. Tulsi has also been shown to have anti-ulcer and ulcer-healing activity that has been observed in many different animal models including aspirin-, indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-, reserpine-, serotonin-, acetic acid-, meloxicam-, cold restraint-, pyloric ligation- and stress-induced ulceration models. This anti-ulcer activity is attributed to multiple actions including the reduction of offensive factors such as acid-pepsin secretion and lipid peroxidation and the enhancement of gastric defensive factors such as mucin secretion, cellular mucus and longevity of mucosal cells.

Mental stress:

In addition to physical, toxic and infective stress, modern living is associated with heightened levels of psychological stress caused by the many demands and fast pace of modern life. This stress compounds the toxic effects of chemical pollutants and the constant fear of pervasive toxic chemicals can itself lead to even further stress and anxiety that may be just as toxic as the chemicals causing it. While the reality of daily chemical exposure cannot be denied, regular consumption of Tulsi not only helps protect and detoxify the body’s cells and organs, it can also help reduce toxic stress by relaxing and calming the mind and offering many psychological benefits including anti-depressant activity and positive effects on memory and cognitive function.

The psychotherapeutic properties of Tulsi have been explored in various animal experiments that reveal that Tulsi has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant properties, with effects comparable to diazepam and antidepressants drugs. Animal studies further reveal that Tulsi enhances memory and cognitive function and protects against aging-induced memory deficits.  Similarly, in human studies, Tulsi has been observed to reduce stress, anxiety and depression, with a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study reporting that Tulsi significantly improves general stress scores, sexual and sleep problems and symptoms such as forgetfulness and exhaustion.

While modern scientific studies suggest that Tulsi is effective in treating a range of stressful conditions, within Ayurveda, Tulsi is more commonly recommended as a preventive measure to enhance the ability to adapt to both psychological and physical stress and therefore prevent the development of stress-related diseases. To this end, many Ayurvedic practitioners recommend the regular consumption of Tulsi tea as an essential lifestyle practice.

Nature nurture:

The cultivation and reverence for the Tulsi plant in the home not only serves specific religious purposes it also directly connects the devotee with the creative power of nature. Connection with nature is profoundly healing and life-affirming; yet, the potential health, emotional, social and cognitive benefits of connection with nature are only just being realized in the west where disconnection from nature and “nature deficit” are common. A review of the scientific literature on the health benefits of connection to nature suggest that “access to nature plays a vital role in human health, wellbeing and development that has not been fully recognized and there is now a global movement to reconnect people with nature that has arisen out of concerns over nature deficit, sedentary lifestyles, obesity, mental health issues, excessive use of electronic media, environmental degradation, wildlife conservation, sustainability and climate change.

Tulsi as a vehicle of consciousness:

Perhaps one of the greatest of Tulsi’s benefits in the modern world comes from its global distribution based on its cultivation using ethical, fair trade, organic and ecological farming practices. There is a growing realization that in order to tackle issues of food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change a shift in agriculture is needed from a “green revolution” to an “ecological intensification revolution. This has been highlighted in a recent United Nations document titled “Wake Up Before It’s Too Late,” which calls for the global community to endorse and advocate for local solutions to toxicity, food insecurity and poverty, such as the use of organic and small-scale farming over the use of genetically modified organisms and monocultures. While ecological farming methods are not specific to Tulsi, they have been effectively applied to Tulsi cultivation by Organic India Pvt. Ltd. This company, which was established as a “vehicle of consciousness,” works with thousands of organic Tulsi farmers in India to produce a business ecology whereby rural Indian farmers gain their dignity and a healthy and sustainable livelihood while serving to nurture the land they live on and produce a range of teas that enable consumers around the world to access the benefits of Tulsi.

Modern day scientific research into Tulsi demonstrates the many psychological and physiological benefits from consuming Tulsi and provides a testament to the wisdom inherent in Hinduism and Ayurveda, which celebrates Tulsi as a plant that can be worshipped, ingested, made into tea and used for medicinal and spiritual purposes within daily life. In providing a focus for ethical, sustainable and ecological farming practices that provides a livelihood for thousands of farmers, the cultivation of Tulsi goes beyond providing benefits for individuals and households and begins to address broader social, economic and environmental issues.

A Herbal Remedy:

According to Jeevan Kulkarni, author of ‘Historical Truths & Untruths Exposed,’ when Hindu women worship Tulsi, they in effect pray for “less and less carbonic acid and more and more oxygen – a perfect object lesson in sanitation, art and religion”. The Tulsi plant is even known to purify or de-pollute the atmosphere. Tulsi used to be a universal remedy in cases of malarial fever.

Medicinal Value of Tulsi:

Apart from religious value, the Tulsi has many medicinal properties making it a sacred plant. Tulsi has been mentioned in Charaka Samhita, an ancient book of ayurveda. It proves that Tulsi has been used in many medicines since thousands of years. Cold, headache, heart disease, stomach infections can be cured by having an extract of Tulsi. It acts as a pain killer. Almost all the ayurvedic cough syrups contain Tulsi as an important ingredient, as it helps in lessening bronchitis. Tulsi reduces blood glucose levels and so is an effective herb for diabetes. Radiation poisoning as well as cataract can also be cured to certain extent by having Tulsi extract. Tulsi acts as a stress reliever by balancing various body processes. It promotes longevity.Tulsi leaves are beneficial for nervous system and help in enhancing memory.Tulsi helps in strengthening kidney. Drink juice of Tulsi leaves mixed in honey for six months in case of renal stones. This will expel these stones through urinary tract. Mouth ulcers and infections can be cured with Tulsi. Tulsi is also very beneficial against insect bites or stings. Drinking juice of Tulsi leaves after every few hours in case of bite is very beneficial. You can also apply Tulsi paste to the affected parts. Owing to immense medicinal value, Tulsi is considered a sacred plant in India.

Home Remedies:

Tulsi can rightly be termed as one of the most commonly and widely used ingredients in many Indian home remedies. From regular fever to some of the deadliest and most fatal bacterial and viral infections – Tulsi can help cure or to some extent, facilitate treating most diseases.  Dr. Simran Saini from New Delhi suggests consuming a drink made by boiling Tulsi leaves and adding about 2grams of black pepper to it. This drink helps in building your immunity, acts as an antibacterial element and facilitates recovery from dengue. The quintessential kadha – a mix of ginger, Tulsi leaves, peppercorn (crushed) in boiling hot water – is usually seen as a potion that can put most illnesses straight. Apart from these there is a bundle of other beneficial properties that this humble plant boasts of, take a look-

1. It acts as a detoxifying, cleansing and purifying agent – both from within and without.

2. Therefore it is good for skin – both when consumed and applied topically.

3. It is also effective in treating skin disorders, itching and issues like ringworms.

4. It can be made into teas or can be had raw, powdered, paste or in form herbal supplements.

5. It has antibiotic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-carcinogenic properties.

6. It helps in relieving from fever, headache, sore throat, cold, cough, flu and chest congestion.

7. It is also beneficial in treating respiratory ailments like chronic bronchitis, asthma et cetera.

8. Helps relieve stress, strengthen immunity, and facilitate proper digestion.

9. It is loaded with phytonutrients, essential oils, Vitamin A and C

10. Regular Tulsi consumption can also aid in balancing various bodily processes.

11. It counters elevated blood sugar levels and is therefore beneficial for diabetics.

12. It helps in regulating uric acid levels in body, thereby elimination risks of developing kidney stones. It is also beneficial for those who have kidney stones.

13. According to the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, Tulsi can help in maintaining normal levels of the stress hormone – cortisol in the body.

14. It can wards off harmful effects of free radicals.

15. Is great for dental health and for healthy gums.

16. Is an effective insect repellant and can aid in treating insect bite.

17. Is also beneficial in treating conditions like hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis, dengue and swine flu.

18. It is also known as adaptogen.

How and When to Grow?

Tulsi plant grows in rich and moist soil with ample sunlight. You can begin by planting it just a few centimeters below the soil with a light cover of dirt. Let it grow indoors till it’s about 6-7 inch tall, after which the plant can be transferred outdoors. Tulsi should be planted right before monsoon, under intense heat.

How to Consume?

Consume it raw, plucked fresh from the plant, add it in your tea or make kadha out of it. Apart from the conventional ways of consuming the humble, holy basil, you can experiment with it in your cooking and render an exquisite, earthy, aromatic flavour to your preparations. To begin with, we bring to you one of the most basic and widely loved delicacies prepared using Tulsi leaves.

Why We Should Not Chew Tulsi Leaves:

It is said that Tulsi is a sacred plant and must be grown up in aangan or country yard, watered carefully and worship by the family members. It is discussed above that it has besides religious significance various medical qualities not in ayurveda, but also in herbal & home remedies. It is natural antibiotic. It is also often recommended to start your day by having two to three fresh Tulsi leaves on an empty stomach, as explained earlier. It is a great blood purifier and is known to flush out toxins and clean your internal systems. Along with this comes the advice to not chew Tulsi leaves but instead swallow them.

If we look at it from the religious context, some people believe that chewing Tulsi leaves is disrespectful as Tulsi was also the name of Lord Vishnu’s (one of the three main Gods in Hinduism) wife and therefore, the plant is worshiped and considered sacred. But that’s not all, there is a scientific side to this too which suggests that it is best to swallow Tulsi leaves.

Medically it is not to be chewed because of the fact that it contains mercury & iron, which are released on chewing. These minerals are known to damage the teeth & causes discoloration. The leaves are also slightly acidic in nature and since, the environment in our mouth is alkaline, it may cause the tooth enamel to wear away if consumed regularly in very large quantities. Usually, fresh juice extracted from Tulsi leaves are used as a home remedy for mouth ulcer. But it is still advised to avoid chewing raw Tulsi leaves because it contains mercury & iron, which can lead to tanning of teeth.

In nut shell, the research-based benefits of Tulsi are:

Natural Immunity Booster

Reduces Fever (antipyretic) & Pain(analgesic)

Reduces Cold, Cough & Other Respiratory Disorders

Reduces Stress & Blood Pressure

Anti-cancer properties

Good for Heart Health

Good for Diabetes Patients

Useful in Kidney stones & Gouty Arthritis

Useful in Gastrointestinal Disorders

Good for Skin & Hair

Acts as an Insect Repellent

There are some side effects of consuming Tulsi. These are as follows:

Tulsi may affect the reproductive capacity of women who are trying to conceive.

Some people experience nausea or diarrhoea when they first add Tulsi tea to their diet, so its best to start with small quantities and increase your consumption over time.

Tulsi may lower blood sugar and should be used with caution in people who have diabetes and are on blood-sugar-lowering medication.

Nutritional Value:

Tulsi leaves are rich in vitamins A, C and K and minerals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and potassium. It also has a good amount of protein and fibre.

Adding holy basil to your self-care:

Supplements of holy basil extract are available in pill or capsule form. The suggested dosage ranges from 300 mg to 2,000 mg per day for general preventative purposes. When used as a treatment, the recommended dosage is 600 mg to 1,800 mg taken in multiple doses throughout the day. All parts of the plant might be used in supplements and topical ointments. Essential oil of holy basil is distilled from leaves and flowers of the plant.

One can also make holy basil tea using the leaves, flowers, or dried leaf powder. The herb can also be used to make freshly brewed tea by placing 2–3 teaspoons of holy basil in a cup of boiling water and letting it steep for 5–6 minutes. The leaves are also commonly used in cooking, though some people eat the leaves raw. Holy basil tastes spicy and bitter.

In brief Tulsi (Ocimum Sactum / Holy Basil) has religious significance as per ancestral theories and used by our Santan Dharma ancestors, since centuries and also even now besides religious values, it has scientific medical values and benefits too, which are proven by Science.

Therefore, it is in my candid opinion that one should use Tulsi not only because it has religious faith, but also due to good health & other benefits.

In the present circumstances where Covid 19 has disturbed the whole country, everyone is finding it difficult to predict the future course of action. The major cause of concern is financial problem. Many people have lost their jobs, businesses have also suffered a great set back and everyone is worried.  You might find it difficult to accept but let me tell you that this position will be changed and happy days will be back. Although it may not happen within a short while but rest assured October onwards you will find that the things will not deteriorate further and will start improving. From January onwards we may feel some visible positive movement in some sectors.

Actually, what happens when such pandemic like things occur? Everyone stops spending money. We spend very carefully on daily needs only. But even during this pandemic there are people who have earned a lot and you all know that. During such times money circulation gets disturbed and it gets accumulated in a few hands. As the nature of money is to keep flowing and to change hands but during pandemic it remains stuck up at one place for long time and same thing has happened this time also.

In 2007 there was recession all over the world and the public got scared due to which there was shortage of money in market. But that situation changed earlier than predicted. The reason was that we were a developing country. Even today we are developing country and hence, the things will roll out. In simple words, when the gravity of Covid 19 will reduce, those who have earned a lot of money during this tenure will start spending it either for purchasing luxury items to uplift their standard to another level or they will invest the same somewhere else. In any case, it has to come out. As soon as it will come out in circulation, the things will start moving towards normalcy.

Many of them will start new ventures, particularly in view of ban on imports from China, there will be lot of demand for normal goods. This demand will motivate those rich people to invest in new ventures which will create jobs and improve the money circulation. Secondly, with the improvement in conditions, everyone having money will start spending it instead of keeping it in safe custody.

What I forsee is not as bad as we are feeling today. As the Covid 19 fear will reduce, things will take a big turnaround.  So, we need to think positive. Another reason for me to think in this manner is ban on Chinese imports and the Government’s proposal to boost make in India products. Many youngsters have started new ventures even during this pandemic. The number of Companies incorporated during the month of July 2020 is more than last year and it also shows a ray of hope. The need of hour is not to feel demoralize rather to think about encashing the opportunities lying ahead.

Our business community must think about starting or increasing their exports. The domestic demand is to be met by local businessmen as Chinese goods will no longer be available. So, get ready for coming bright future and pass this pandemic time in innovating ideas or thinking about new strategies of marketing. Best of luck to all Indians.

Be good, be safe and be positive.


Often people who call themselves progressive consider Dharma and Majhab to be the same. There are many meanings of Dharma or Majhab, such as the way of heaven and attainment of God and which the founder of Dharma has told. In many places, it also comes in the sense of faith.

Dharma and Majhab do not have the same meaning nor does faith and belief, which is discussed below:

In the Vedic period, the name ‘ Sanatan Dharma’ is found for the religion of the Indian subcontinent. ‘Sanatan’ means – eternal or ‘perpetual’, meaning one who has neither beginning nor end. Sanatan Dharma is basically Indian religion, which was spread all over Greater India (Indian subcontinent) at one time.

Dharma is often translated as “duty”, “religion” or “religious duty”, but has a deeper meaning. The word comes from the Sanskrit root “dhri” which means “to sustain” or “that which is integral to something” (e.g. dharma of sugar is to be sweet, fire to be hot). A person’s dharma consists of duties that sustain him according to his innate characteristics which are both spiritual and material, generating two corresponding types:  Sanatandharma – duties performed according to one’s spiritual (constitutional) identity as atman and are thus the same for everyone. Varnashrama-dharma – duties performed according to one’s material (conditional) nature and are specific to the individual at that particular time.

According to the notion of Sanatan-dharma, the eternal and intrinsic inclination of the living entity (atman) is to perform seva (service). Sanatan-dharma, being transcendental, refers to universal and axiomatic laws that are beyond our temporary belief systems Majhab

Majhab is a division of thought or fiqah in Islam. In Islam there are actually many schools. This is because the learned ulema from among the Companions of the Prophet, tabiin and tabi ‘Al-Tabiin who has sufficient conditions and the need for ijtihad are many. However, according to the opinion of the Sunni scholars, the sect of muktabar that can be made opinion and practicing for the public is only four schools, according to the qaul who rajih. For Sunni Islam, there are 4 schools that are Syafie, Maliki, Hanafi and Hanbali. These four schools have the perfect rules, methods and guides written by them in their respective books. It is an invaluable ingredient in the treasury of Islamic law. Other schools have not had enough rules to be used as guides in the field of law as the four. Muslims in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia mostly follow the Syafie sect. For Shi’ite Islam there are three main schools namely Jaafari, Ismaili and Zaidi.

Sanatan Dharma and Majhab have not the same meaning. As the Sanatan Dharma was designed as a way of life designed to best ensure the continuity of humanity on this earth and provide the entire population with spiritual sustenance. Dharma is functional objects. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing “something established or firm”. Majhab is a belief item. A Majhab is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). The major Sunni have many Tasawwufī characteristics and express belief in the Qur’an and The While Nizārī belong to the “Imami jurisprudence” or Ja’fāriyya Madhab.

Dharma is natural due to the nature of human nature or human nature and its basis is the rule of God or creation. But Majhab is unnatural or unnatural by being human. There are many different and different types of Majhab and conflicting evidence of their being manned or created. A madhhab is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). The major Sunni. Their madh’hab was established by Ibn Nusayr, and their aqidah is developed. While Nizārī belong to the “Imami jurisprudence” or Jafāriyya Madhab.

The symptoms of Dharma that Manu Maharaj has told are the same for all mankind and no civilized person can be opposed to him. Dharma is an important term in Indian religions. In Hinduism it means ‘duty’, ‘virtue’, ‘morality’, even ‘religion’ and it refers to the power which upholds the universe and society. The Manu-smriti prescribes to Hindus their dharma—i.e., that set of obligations incumbent on each as a member of one of the four social classes (varnas) and engaged in one of the four stages of life (ashramas). Majhab are many and are accepted only by those who follow the same Majhab. Therefore, they are not public and universal.

Dharma as an ethical category relating to freedom and responsibility. Dharma is a concept which was of great complexity and of paramount importance in Hindu thought prior to the modern period so to be righteous it is necessary to be virtuous. But since there are many Majhab so only the followers of that Majhab accept the same. So they are not public and universal. That is, just as morality has a continuous relationship with Dharma, in the same way, virtue has no relation with Majhab.

Dharma is an ethical form, so to be righteous it is necessary to be virtuous. But even after the completion of conduct, no human being can become a Muslim or a strongman till he brings faith or belief in the beliefs of that religion. Just as no matter how true God is a worshiper and a high-quality virtuous, he cannot become a Christian or a Muslim unless he believes in the Hazrat Jesus and the Bible or Hazrat Mohammad and the Quran Sharif.

It is Dharma that makes man a human being, or it is only by wearing Dharma, Dharma qualities and deeds, that human being attains manhood and becomes entitled to be called a human being. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with Rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and “right way of living”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life. The four purusarthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values).

Dharma means to act virtuously and righteously. That is, it means to act morally and ethically throughout one’s life. However, dharma also has a secondary aspect; since Hindus believe that they are born in debt to the Gods and other human beings, dharma calls for Hindus to repay this debt.

In other words, Dharma and manhood are synonymous. Because wearing Dharma is manhood. It has been said that deeds like eating, drinking, sleeping, producing children are the same between humans and animals. Only Dharma’s are special among humans, which makes humans human. Human beings without religion are like animals

But Majhab makes a man only panthai or Majhabi and superstitious. In other words, by believing in Majhab or Panth, a person becomes a resonant or Christian or Muslim of that Majhab and not a virtuous or a saint. A saint is a holy person. In Christianity, the word “saint” refers to any person who is “in Christ”, and in whom Christ dwells, whether in Heaven or in earth. Orthodox Christians and Catholics teach that all Christians in Heaven are saints, but some are worthy of more honor than others. Virtue is a behaviour showing high moral standards, a quality considered morally good or desirable in a person. A moral excellence, a positive trait or quality subjectively deemed to be morally excellent and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting collective and individual greatness.

Majhabi  are members of an untouchable caste who have left Hinduism. The word Majhabi is derived from the Urdu term Majhab (Majhab) means religion or sect).

Dharma connects human beings directly with God (Mukti) and it is mandatory for them to become righteous or virtuous for the attainment of salvation and for salvation, it is more important than virtue to follow the beliefs of that religion. Mukti means the freedom that all souls desire for. In other words, freedom from sorrow and miseries.  But for liberation of Majhab, it is mandatory for a person to become a pānthai or Majhabi.

Just as Jannat, this is “paradise, garden”, is the final abode of the righteous and the Islamic. Entrants will be greeted by angels with salutations of peace or As-Salamu Alaykum.will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell) and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise) Who considers Allah and Muhammad Sahib as their last Prophet, no matter how adulterous or sinful they may be will get Jannat while non-Muslims, no matter how godly or virtuous they are, they will surely burn in the fire of hell, because he has not brought his faith in Allah and Rasool, the God of Quran.

External signs have no place in Dharma because Dharma is not gender-lingam dharmakaranam means that gender (external sign) is not the cause of Dharma. We have come to such a pass that nobody wears any of the external marks of our Dharma’s, though some discipline as well as orderliness is essential in Dharma also. That is why different jatis and different ashramas have different functions and signs. According to the dharmasastras we must wear the dhoti or the sari in such and such a way or apply the mark to the forehead in a particular manner. All this is not meant for social discipline alone. There is a high purpose, that of purifying our inner life. Besides that there are six Pillars of Santam Dharma like Truthfulness, Mercy, Austerity, Cleanliness, Charity, and Spiritual Education.

However, it is mandatory for Majhabi to have external signs such as a Muslim cap and beard is mandatory for a Muslim. Besides that they have five Pillars like Profession of Faith (shahada), Prayer (salat), Alms (zakat), Fasting (sawm), Pilgrimage (hajj).

 Dharma makes man a (Pursharthi) man because it teaches wisdom to attain abhudaya and Moksha only by true conduct. Purushrthas (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ) literally means an “object of human pursuit”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life. The four purusārthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values. All four Purusarthas are important, but in cases of conflict, Dharma is considered more important than Artha or Kama in Hindu philosophy. Moksha is considered the ultimate ideal of human life. But Majhab teaches man the lesson of laziness, because only by obeying the intentions of Majhab, salvation is taught in him as no concept of inherited sin in Islam. We are born without any sin or sinful conditions. Similarly if a child is born with any abnormal conditions, it is not a punishment of any sin of parents or forefathers. Salvation from sins is achieved through developing and understanding the purpose of life as established by The Holy Quran, gaining knowledge about sinful conditions through over 600 commandments of  the Holy Quran and making “righteousness” as the guiding principle of decision making.

Dharma makes man independent and self-independent by connecting people directly to God because he does not state the need for any intermediary or agent between God and man. Atman (Sanskrit)  आत्मन् means inner selfspirit, or soul. In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta school of  HinduismAtman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain Moksha (liberation), a human being must acquire self-knowledge (Atma Gyan).

But Majhab makes a man dependent on others because he does not consider liberation without the recommendation of the promoter of Majhab. The World of Islam, shows that his great journey had at least two major aims: first to awaken and enlighten Muslim peoples by describing real situations in the Muslim world that extends into Eurasia, and second to elaborate a strategy for the liberation of Muslim peoples under the rule of Western great powers.

Dharma  teaches to sacrifice their lives to protect the interests of others, It is one of the key concepts in Indian thought It has been variously translated as ordinance, duty, right, justice, morality, law, virtue, religion, ethics, good works, code of conduct, and so on. While Majhab gives the message of sacrificing violence to kill the lives of other humans and animals for their own benefit, since the time of Prophet Mohammad, Muslims have sacrificed animals (qurbaani) on the day to honour Ibrahim’s spirit of sacrifice.

Dharma teaches man to love all beings; Dharma means the truth about love. To be a truthful, loving friend is the thing, love lets life through. Happiness is the spring, cherishing others is the river, if  you look carefully and sees clearly, and then you’ll see nothing is as it appears to be. There is literally nothing to worry about, nothing to be afraid of, to love all of yourself you have to love everyone, when you know how love works and you work with love, everything is love and everything works.

Whereas Majhab teaches man to eat the meat of animals and hatred of other Dharma’s. In Islamic law dhabīah (pronounced zabiha by the people from non-Arab Muslim countries such as Iran and Pakistan, ‘slaughtered animal’) is the prescribed method of ritual slaughter of all lawful halal animals. This method of slaughtering lawful animals has several conditions to be fulfilled. The name of God or “In the name of God” (Bismillah) has to be called by the butcher upon slaughter of each halal animal separately, and it should consist of a swift, deep incision with a very sharp knife on the throat, cutting the wind pipejugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord intact.

The method is used to comply with conditions stated in the Quran and in Islamic tradition. However regarding hatred of other Dharma’s by Majhab which is prevalent many Muslim scholars believe that Quranic verses such as “Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error” (and (Quran ) show that Islam prohibits forced conversion towards people of any religion but not about hatrednes. Those who follow Tawheed with Islamic guidelines derived from the holy Quran and Sunnah (practice of Prophet Muhammad) are known as Muslims whereas people denying Islamic teachings are termed as Kuffar (non believers) because of denying Quran and  Sunnah; whereas those who mix Tawheed with others (Gods) are referred as Mushrakeen.  So the whole identity of a Muslim lies how he is about Tawheed. If any person considers anyone as fit for worship except one God called Allah cannot remain Muslim rather turn to be Mushrik. That’s why we see that Muslims are very rigid to adore any person or any object except Allah.

Dharma eliminates discrimination and opposition and teaches unity by focusing mankind on a centre of public ethics and ideas as a human being. In Dharma there  exist some rule or law which ‘Enforces’ moral value and that it is natural to human person. The unity of humanity is one of the central teachings of the Dharma teachings state that since all humans have been created in the image of God, God does not make any distinction between people regardless of race or colour. Thus, because all humans have been created equal, promotes the unity of humanity, and that people’s vision should be world-embracing and that people should love the whole world.

But Majhab increases discrimination and opposition and eradicates unity by making their own separate batches due to their different intentions and duties. There are legalized discrimination, religious hatred, and systematic marginalization of a community in even Muslims. Malaysian Muslims – the Shias – perpetuated in the name of Islam. It demonstrates how a central government-derived fatwa (religious legal opinion) banning Shi’ism and the propagation of Shias teachings in the country since 1996 has been used to justify a range of human rights violations, not limited to the religious freedom of this minority group.

Dharma key beliefs shared among Dharma’s truth is eternal, Dharma is Truth and Reality, The Vedas are the ultimate authority, everyone should strive to achieve dharma, and Individual souls are immortal. The goal of the individual soul is Moksha. Dharma actually believes in one God, The Gods of the Dharma faith represent different forms of persons. Most Dharma has God or goddess such as Shiva, Krishna or Lakshmi to whom they pray regularly. Dharma shows the worship of God.

Whereas Majhabi differs from other Majhab by revealing the worship of promoter / guru / man etc. A madhhab is a school of thought within (Islamic jurisprudence).

The major Sunni madhhab are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali. They emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries CE and by the twelfth century almost all jurists aligned themselves with a particular madhhab. These four schools recognize each other’s validity and they have interacted in legal debate over the centuries. Rulings of these schools are followed across the Muslim world without exclusive regional restrictions, but they each came to dominate in different parts of the world. Imam is an Islamic leadership position.

It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. In Yemen, the title was formerly given to the king of the country.

For Shi’a Muslims, the Imams are leaders of the Islamic community or ummah after the Prophet. The term is only applicable to the members of Ahl al-Bayt, the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, designated as infallibles.

By properly understanding the difference between Dharma and Majhab, human beings can easily make effort to do the best welfare works, faith, truth, reality,  goal, belief, prayer by accepting their thinking  and hence. It is called Dharma, so it is well-being of all in its observance.

(The views expressed in this article are personal views/ opinion of the author and the website does not endorse them or owe any responsibility and is published subject to T & C.)

A super hero is a person who does heroic deeds and has the ability to do them in a way that a normal person couldn’t. From “The Avengers, Batman and Aquaman” to “doctors, Army officers and actors” , our definition of superheroes transformed. From being crazy for a team of fictional superheroes to saluting the superheroes we met in our real life, our superheroes transmuted.

We all consider our doctors, Army officers and actors as our ”superheroes”. But, “what is apparent may not be the truth”. I don’t say that they aren’t heroes. They are heroes! BUT, there is a superhero behind each one of them.

Ever thought about that wife who says “come back soon” to her husband who is an Army Officer, very well knowing that maybe that soon won’t come sooner or later, knowing that she has a responsibly of a family in which a sister, a mother and a daughter would be waiting for their hero to come back soon. That lady, that woman is going to be the support system of the family. Doesn’t it take courage to bid goodbye to her husband? Doesn’t it take courage to be a mother and a father for her children simultaneously? To be both a son and a daughter for her parents? It takes! It definitely takes a lot of courage. She has a brave heart and that’s what makes her a superhero!

Being a wife of a doctor, knowing that her husband spends most of his day at a place that surrounds him of negativity, problems, worries, fear of life. A place where people are between life and death. Isn’t it a difficult task to be a backbone of such a hero? Isn’t it difficult to be a support system of such a hero? This pandemic is a lively example and I cannot have a better example to showcase how brave the wife of a doctor is. Her husband, staying away from his family, not coming home for a few days, working ceaselessly for even more than 24 hours. His support system, his partner is a superhero.

”Behind every successful man is a strong woman” is apt in proving and tagging the wives of heroes as superheroes.

Where a soldier takes responsibility of his nation, his wife takes responsibility of the family who gave birth to that hero. Where a doctor takes care of this patient at the hospital, performing a hectic schedule involving mental and physical work,  pressurized because he has to save a life; at the same time, his wife who is at home trying her best to be a father and mother both when her children requires their father’s love but can’t get because a doctor has no vacations! Has no holidays! Is never free! Yes, she too has an undaunted heart.

These women have a lionheart. Even if they aren’t on borders, not involved in saving lives of people are as heroic and appreciable as their partners. Let’s now understand and recognise the difference between heroes and superheroes and appreciate the courage that a woman took to marry a hero who might not be there with her all the time, might not keep her beloved all the time and might not protect her always; but still she chose to spend her entire life with such a person. She is worth tagging a superhero. She is a superhero behind a hero but still stands side by side with her husband. She isn’t just a wife but also a father, a son and a brother; at the same time a sister, a daughter and a mother too.

Due to pandemic fallout, the Government has decided to go in for online classes in the School all over the Country. It is not known whether the online classes are giving the requisite results, as were thought of. The Indian education system has many imbalances between rural & urban, male & female, rich & poor, virtually challenged and the digital world. Though for the students, who had not been attending the classes, since, March, 2020 due to COVID-19 Pandemic was not studying at all at home. They were habituated to go to School & have classrooms studies. But, this system has something for them to study. However, neither the educational institutions nor its teachers have ample infrastructure and knowledge. Though it is revolutionized learning, but due to the above mentioned imbalances, it is not giving requisite results. There is an immensely colossal gap between public schools and private schools and those having access to the Computers. Afore deciding this online learning, it was understood and had the notion that the teachers first have the erudition of the digital world and having the Computers and software. But, in fact our country has astronomical differences in terms of the education system and structural imbalances.

There are economically backward people. There is deep connection between incapacitation and penuriousness. Most of the people lives in the rural areas and even in the urban areas do not have the access to laptops, keenly intellective phones and the digital world. This type of online classes is discrimination to immensely colossal segment of India’s students’ population. In most of the cases, there is either no smart phone or laptops or Computers available at home or even if, it is available then there is one perspicacious phone available in a house, which is being utilized by either Father or Mother and student’s study is dependent on its availability.

In case in a house there are 2-3 children, it signifies that there must be 4-5 astute phones or computers available at a house, which is not possible for such families to afford and now especially when people are boycotting Chinese products, there is scarcity of such instruments in the market place. On one hand, due to COVID-19, there is fallout in financials in a family; the cost of internet has incremented the encumbrance to the population. Today in this time of lockdown, online education may seem to be only feasible option to keep the nation’s education system going, but in an unequal society.

It is highly exclusive learning. It has with more inequalities than shaping the edification system. Most of the students were acclimated to sit in the classroom and clear their doubts on the spot from teachers and the edifiers during edifying the students have ocular perceiver to ocular perceiver contact is missing through this system. There used to be disciplined system through the classroom studies, which is now missing and the students are not disciplined through online study system.

On one hand, there are quandaries for the parents not having the keenly intellective phones or the computers, on other hand there is less connectivity of 4G connections.  India ranked 130th rank for mobile internet speed and 71st for fine-tuned broadband speeds during March, 2020. Given such disparities in access to the cyber world how viable are online studies? Each day mobile internet speed is dropping and there is no Wi-Fi connection for each and every student.

In some components of the country due to security reasons, there is cutting of phones & internet accommodations and when it is recuperated for sometimes, it is slow at 2G connections and even at times the verbalized accommodations are snapped. Thus, it is arduous time for students and teachers to make utilization of online classes.

In most of cases not only students, but teachers are additionally facing quandaries with online classes. The teachers have the complaints that there is involution & interference of parents, which makes it impeccable arduous to exercise any liberation in class. There are cases where teachers feel that the students work is being done either by elder brother/sister or the parents. Consequently, it is very arduous for them to access the students’ facility to learn. There is no motivation by the teachers, which was the concept in classroom. It looks homogeneous to the students are having open book test in lieu of having off book test.

Though the students have access to teachers for 24 hours, but generate lot of pressure on the teachers. The encumbrance of studies and learning now shifted from teachers to the students and the self studies. The digital divide is conspicuous across class, gender, region or place of residence. Among the poorest 20{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} households, only 2.7{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} have access to a computer and 8.9{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} to internet facilities. In case of the top 20{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} households, the proportions are 27.6{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} and 50.5{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503}.

The difference is ostensible across states additionally. For example, the proportion of households with access to a computer varies from 4.6{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} in Bihar to 23.5{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} in Kerala and 35{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} in Delhi. The difference is starker in case of internet access.

In states like Delhi, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and Uttarakhand, more than 40{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} households have access to internet. The proportion is less than 20{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} for Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.

The gender divide in internet utilization is withal stark. As per the Internet and Mobile Sodality of India report, in 2019, while 67{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} men had access to internet, this figure was only at 33{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} for women. The disparity is more prominent in rural India, where the figures are 72{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} and 28{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} for men and women, respectively.

If the Government perpetuate online inculcation without obligatory auxiliary measures, the prevailing disparity in the virtual world could translate into widening teaching inequalities among learners.

Apart from access, digital inculcation additionally requires conventional and predictable internet connectivity. To fortify online work from home during this lockdown period, telecom operators and broadband accommodation providers like Vodafone, Jio and BSNL are offering facilities like supplemental data and free internet to their subscribers.

Would these offers authentically ascertain a sound transaction of online classes to students across the country?

A report by Quacquarelli Symonds on utilization of internet in India reveals that both the state and the private players have not yet accomplished assured connectivity to all subscribers. The survey shows that among respondents who utilize home broadband, over 3{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} face cable cuts, 53{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} face poor connectivity and 32{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} face signal issues. In case of mobile data, 40.2{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} face poor connectivity and 56.6{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} face signal issues.

Sometimes, the lack of connectivity is not a technical glitch. In Jammu and Kashmir, for instance, students could not access online classes because a regime order restricted network connectivity to 2G in lieu of 4G.

Even if the rudimentary infrastructure was in place, a whole set of supplemental gaps are conspicuous.

There are some advantages additionally of online studies like it is convenient, as the studies for students are available for 24 hours in lieu of classroom studies, which were fine-tuned, it is flexible mode of studies. The studies are at home and the family is involved in the verbalized studies in online environment.

It is more individual attention, as some of the students are not comfortable asking questions in class because of their shy nature. However, they can ask questions to the Instructor online. It is the latest version of studies and genuine world skills. It has some financial benefits additionally, as the cost of travelling going to school by any mode is not there, the expenses of mess is also saved, as the students orally consumes at home. It is self disciplined mode of study and connect the students to the global world.

There are disadvantages additionally like it is more time consuming than on school classes. It is more facile to procrastinate. It requires time management, which is missing in the present world. It causes sense of isolation. It does not have an Instructor hounding you to stay on task. It requires more responsibility. In integration to all these disadvantages of avail of more internets it is diverting students mind to other games or unwanted sites. It affects eyes and the mental & psychological health.

It is more hazardous that isolation for students for not commixing up with the students in the classroom affects the physical health of the students. It is for parents too to visually examine the child/children about the syndrome symptoms, as exhorted by the medico for use & extortionate access to digital world.

It is not wastage of time for students that schools are not opening instead it is going in positive direction. Parents have optically canvassed that without online classes, children were slumbering tardy at night and arousing tardy and their total routine was transmuted, but due to online classes now, their routine will be fine, it is good that they will get work to keep diligent.

For teachers it is onerous as they have to be available for the students 24 hours a day and their personal life has been affected to a more preponderant extent.

In nutshell, more infrastructures are required for such type of studies. Though it is something is better than nothing, but online teaching under the present unforeseen, & arduous scenario, is applaudable effort. Lockdown has enabled teachers to adopt incipient techniques of teaching & facing incipient challenges. They are exposed to the interference of parents who unnecessarily make comments during the digital class & harass the teachers. The teachers who have acclimated to this incipient style of teaching at the cost of their personal lives are to be appreciated. Hopefully, when classroom teaching will become feasible in coming days, imperfections left of online teaching will be taken care of.

Anger is definitely not an option, rather it’s a choice. Anger is an emotion which is reaction to other’s action beyond our expectations. People say that anger is a human’s nature. But I differ from this view. I feel anger is not a human nature. It is more of something which one likes to showcase as dominance over others.

For example: An employee who works in any organization generally gets angry on one or the other reason but he/she controls anger be it on employer or colleagues. If anger is opted here then he/ she might be fired from the job or might face some other consequences. It shows that an individual can always make a choice either to get angry or to be cool and calm. On the contrary, an individual always finds it easy to show anger at his/her family members because we all know that whatsoever the case may be, family will stay and won’t react otherwise or there may not be grave consequences to this.

If given a choice of not showing anger on anyone, be it family, friends, colleagues, unknown person etc., things will still remain the same but it might get more serious if it is opted otherwise. Always give a thought whether you actually need to show anger. There are many live examples in everyone’s life when he/she keeps distance from such persons who show anger every time.

Keeping oneself calm at the time of anger holds the main key. This may not open the locked situation immediately but this may result into a better solution in the time to come.

How to control the anger:

  1. Take a deep breath and exhale the anger.
  2. Spend a time in what you like to do.
  3. Never react on the spot. Mind it, for healthy discussions you need a cool head.