Some millions of years, some believe in Hindu religion thousands of years old. But is it true? Come, we know on the basis of birth dates of some great men, how old is Hindu religion? Hinduism begins again with the Varah Kalpa. Earlier, Padma Kalpa, Brahma Kaipa, Hiranya Garbha Kalpa and Mahat Kalpa have passed.


Guru Nanak: Hindu religion 500 years ago

Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, was born on 15 April 1469 and left the body on 22 September 1539. India and Hinduism were protected by all the 10 Gurus of the Guru tradition.


Baba Ramdev: Hindu religion 650 years ago

Baba Ramdev was born in 1352 AD and he took samadhi in 1385 AD. Baba, the incarnation of Dwarkadhish, is called Ramsa Pir, the Pir of Peers.


Jhulelal: Hinduism 1,000 years ago

Varun Dev was incarnated as Jhulelal to protect the Hindus of Sindh province. In Pakistan, Jhulelalji is known as Jind Pir and Lalshah. He was born in 1007 AD.


Guru Gorakshanath: Hinduism 1,100 years ago

According to Rahul Sankrityayan, the great yogi Guru Gorakshnath or Gorakhnath was born on 845 AD. There is a mention of the renovation of the temple of Guru Gorakhnath in Gorakhpur in the 9th century. Gorakhnath lived long.


Adishankara: 1,200 years ago Hinduism

Adishankaracharya reorganized Hinduism. He was born in 788 AD and in 820 AD he left the body at the age of 32. He established 4 benches. He was born in Kerala and took samadhi in Kedarnath. By the way, Adi Shankaracharya was born in 508 BCE according to the Guru Shishya tradition of the four mathas. The Shankaracharya who was born on 788 AD was Abhinav Shankara.


Emperor Harshvardhan: 1,400 years ago Hinduism

The great emperor Harshavardhana was born in 590 AD and died in 647 A.D. Harshavardhana is also believed to have invaded Arabia, but was intercepted in an area of the desert. It is mentioned in the Bhavishpurana. It was only during Harsha’s reign that the Chinese traveler came to Xuanzang.


Chandragupta II: 1,650 years ago Hinduism

Emperor Chandragupta II received the title of Vikramaditya. He ruled from 380 AD to 412 AD. Mahakavi Kalidas was the beauty of his court.


Emperor Vikramaditya: Hinduism 2,100 years ago

Vikramaditya’s father was Gandharvasen and eider brother Bhartrihari. Emperor Vikramaditya was born in 101 BCE after Kalikal passed 3,000 years. Hinduism attained great heights during his time. He was a historical man.


Acharya Chanakya: Hinduism 2,300 years ago

Chanakya was born in 371 BCE while he died in 283 BCE. Chanakya is mentioned in Mudrarakshas, Brihatkatakosh, Vayupurana, Matsyapurana, Vishnupurana, Buddhist texts Mahavansh, Jain Purana etc. Alexander’s invasion of India was at the time of Chanakya itself.


Lord Mahavir Swami: Hindu religion 2,650 years ago

Mahavir Swami, the restorer of Jainism, was born in 599 BC. He was the 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism. Hinduism was the main religion of India even during his time. It was during his time that Lord Buddha (563 BC) established a new religion of his own.


Lord Parshvanath: Hinduism 2,850 years ago

The 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanath took place 250 years before Lord Mahavir Swami. It is believed that Hinduism used to be the religion of India during his time. There was a lot of peace and prosperity in India at the time of Parshvanath.


Lord Krishna: Hinduism 5,000 years ago

According to historical research, Lord Krishna was born in Mathura in 3112 BC. Arishta Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankara of Jainism, was a cousin of Lord Krishna. The Gita is the main scripture of the Hindus, which is a part of the Mahabharata.


Lord Shri Ram: Hinduism 7,000 years ago

According to research, Lord Rama was born in Ayodhya in 5114 BC. During the Punavasu Nakshatra in the sky at the time of the birth of Rama, 5 planets were in their higher position. This condition stated by Valmiki was formed 7,131 years ago.



Vaivaswat Manu: Hinduism 8,500 years ago

Vaivasvata Manu was estimated to have taken place in 6673 BC. There was a deluge during the time of these Manu. After several months spent in the boat by Vaivaswat Manu and his people, his boat came down as the water descended from the summit of Gauri-Shankar. Then the life cycle of human beings went on the earth again. This is the date of their existence in the history of Mathur.


Samrat Yayati: Hinduism 9,000 years ago

The principal 5 sons of Emperor Yayati were- 1. Puru, 2. Yadu, 3. Turvus, 4. Anu and 5. Druhu. He is called Panchananda in the Vedas. Approximately 7,200 BCE, i.e. 9,217 years ago, these five sons of Yayati ruled the whole earth. The five sons established dynasties in their own names. Yadu from Yadu, Yavan from Turvasu, Bhoja from Druhu, Nilalechha from Anu and Paurava dynasty from Puru were established. Yayati Prajapati took place in the 10th generation of Brahma.


Swayambhav Manu: Hinduism 11,000 years ago

According to the history of Mathura, Swayambhav Manu was estimated at 9057 C. Rishabhanath, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, was in the 5th generation from Swayambhuva Manu in this order – Swayambhuva Manu, Priyabrata, Agnighra, Navel and then Rishabh. Rishabhanath had 2 sons – Chakravarti Emperor Bharata and Bahubali. There are several reasons why Swayambhava Manu is considered the first human being on earth. Dharmashastra and Prachatas Manu are considered as the masters of Arthashastra. Manusmriti had associated Sanatana Dharma with the code of conduct.

Brahma: Hinduism 14,000 years ago

The total of Lord Brahma is estimated to have started around 12,000 BC. The principal sons of Brahma were – Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulah, Kritu, Bhrigu, Vasistha, Qaksha, Kandarbha, Narada, Sanak, Sanandan, Sanatana and Sanatkumar, Swayambhuva Manu and Chitragupta. Marichi’s son was the sage Kashyapa, who had hundreds of sons of gods, demons, demons, demons etc. Brahma is credited with the origin of the species.


Neil Varaha: Hinduism 16,000 years ago

It is said that around 14,000 Vikram era, that is, 15,923 years ago, Lord Neel Varaha incarnated. Neil Varaha period was followed by Adi Varaha period and then White \flaraha period. During this period, Lord Varaha removed water from the earth and made thabitable for humans. After that Brahma expanded the human race and Shiva established the kingdom of religion and justice all over the earth. Earlier people lived in Heaven or say Devlok. Although still human, but the beginning of civilization is considered from here. The times mentioned in this video are approximate and derived from the Puranas. This story of Hinduism begins with the Varaha Kalpa, whereas the  earlier history is also recorded in the Puranas, which are told through the main 5 Kalpas. The first king of Jambudweep was Swayambhav Manu.


Generations mentioned

Marichi was born from Brahmaji. Marichi’s son was Kashyap. Kashyapa’s vivaswan and vivaswan’s vaivasvata manu. Vaivasvata Manu was born in 6673 BC. Lord Rama was born in the 64th generation of the family of Vaivasvata Manu and underwent surgery in the 50th generation of Rama’s son Kush, who fought on behalf of the Kauravas in the Mahabharata. The war of Mahabharata occurred around 3000 BC.


In ancient texts, human history is divided into 5 kalpas

(1) Hamat Kalpa – 1 lakh 9800 years starting from Vikram Samvat East to 85,800 years ago

(2) Hiranya Garbha – Kalpa 85,800 Vikram Samvat East to 61,800 years ago, Brahman Kalpa 60,800 Vikram Samvat East to 37,800 years ago

(3) Brahma Kalpa 60,800 Vikram Samvat East to 37,800 years ago

(4) Padma Kalpa 37,800 Vikram Samvat East to 13,800 years ago and

(5) Varaha Ka1pa 13,800 Vikram Samvat East Starting from this time and going on till this time.


So far Varah Kalpa’s self-respecting Manu, Swarokish Manu, Uttam Manu, Tamas Manu, Raivat Manu, Chakshush Manu and Vaivasvata Manu have passed, and now the difference between Vaivasvata and Savarni Manu is on. The emergence of Savarni Manu took place 5,630 years b

The Hanuman Chalisa (Hindi pronunciation: [ɦənʊmaːn tʃaːliːsaː]; literally Forty chaupais on Hanuman) is a Hindu devotional hymn (stotra) addressed to God Hanuman. We all chant Hanuman Chalisa without knowing its spiritual and scientific benefits. We even don’t know its Author. The article highlights all these  issues.

The authorship of the Hanuman Chalisa is attributed to Tulsidas, a poet-saint who lived in the 16th century CE. He mentions his name in the last verse of the hymn. It is said in the 39th verse of the Hanuman Chalisa that whoever chants it with full devotion to Hanuman, will have Hanuman’s grace. Among Hindus worldwide, it is a very popular belief that chanting the Chalisa invokes Hanuman’s divine intervention in grave problems.


Tulsidas (1497/1532–1623) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion for Rama. A composer of several popular works, he is best known for being the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi language. Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayan in Sanskrit. Tulsidas lived in the city of Varanasi until his death. The Tulsi Ghat in Varnasi is named after him. He founded the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple dedicated to Hanuman in Varanasi, believed to stand at the place where he had the sight of Hanuman. Tulsidas started the Ramlila plays, a folk-theatre adaption of the Ramayan. He has been acclaimed as one of the greatest poets in HindiIndian, and World literature. The impact of Tulsidas and his works on the art, culture and society in India is widespread and is seen to date in vernacular language, Ramlila plays, Hindustani classical music, popular music, and television series.

The power of the words of Hanuman Chalisa has been prevalent since time immemorial. The Hanuman Chalisa has several significant instances other than being a strength symbol. It signifies various purposes of life along with highlighting death rituals according to the Hindu customs.

Historic relation – Story behind Hanuman Chalisa

Once Tulsidas went to meet Aurangzeb. The emperor mocked Tulsidas and challenged him to show the lord to him. The poet ingeniously replied that seeing Rama was not possible without true devotion. As a result, he was imprisoned by Aurangzeb. Tulsi Das is thought to have written the magnificent verses of the Hanuman Chalisa in that prison. It is said that an army of monkeys menaced Delhi as soon as Tulsidas finished his ode and recited the same.

The string of verses in the chant tell the story of devotion and submission of Hanuman to Lord Ram. He believed in a very strong form of worship that lied in serving the Lord. All his acts of such devotion are immortalised in the Chalisa, “Chalis” meaning forty. Several of his acts of selfless service, including the time when Hanuman carries the entire mountain containing “sanjeevanibuti”, the magical herb to cure Lakshman, are mentioned in the verses. He traverses across the oceans in search for Sita to leave a token of the Lord for her. All these acts of bravery and selflessness symbolise the strength that these verses contain.

Hanuman Chalisa is a timeless ode to devotion. Lord Hanuman is known for his devotion to Lord Ram and is considered to be the embodiment of faith, surrender and devotion.

The strength of the Chalisa

Creating the picture of an ideal devotee, the Hanuman Chalisa casts Hanuman as the ideal embodiment of a dedicated devotee. It preaches an eternal feeling of love and sacrifice, holding the God in your heart at all times. Going back to the history of the esteemed Hanuman Chalisa, it is said that whoever chants the Chalisa in undying devotion to Hanuman will acquire his grace & strength and rescue to solve all the troubles. It involves miraculous interventions in everyday problems and those to do with the evil.

According to the Indian history, Hanuman intervened in all the problems Lord Ram faced. The strength that the verses evoke can bring about life changing alterations provided there exists a complete faith and devotion of the great devotee Hanuman.

Where is Lord Hanuman living now?

We have known about his existence since Treta Yuga that saw the emergence of Lord Rama and then in Dwapar Yuga, the era of Krishna. We are now living in Kalyuga. Outside most Hanuman Temples (especially the ancient ones) we will find monkeys.

What are the benefits of Hanuman Chalisa

  • Dedicated recitals of Hanuman Chalisa can one overcome the trauma of bad experiences.
  • Those suffering from stress should read Hanuman Chalisa to feel relaxed and in control of life.
  • For those seeking enlightenment, reading Hanuman Chalisa can help gain wisdom and spiritual knowledge.
  • Reading Hanuman Chalisa every morning helps you de-stress.
  • Hanuman Chalisa helps your mind feel more relaxed.
  • Hanuman Chalisa helps you stay happy all day.
  • It is believed that reading Hanuman Chalisa before any trip prevents any accidents or mishappenings and have a safe trip.
  • It is believed that reciting Hanuman Chalisa can also help in retransformation, may promote positivity and help in keeping bad company away.

 Hanuman Chalisa have astrological significance

  • Hanuman Chalisa has astrological significance as well. It is found to be deeply successful in controlling the malefic impacts of Saturn’s transit or Saturn’s major or minor periods. Those under the negative impact of the planet will discover incredible help and advantage with the regular recitation of the Chalisa 8 times on a Saturday.
  • Those with mangal dosha or are Manglik should recount this Chalisa for beneficial results. Positive characteristics of Mars-like quality, mental fortitude, unstoppable soul and vitality are guzzled through reciting the Chalisa.

It is believed that in one of these verses of Hanuman Chalisa, Tulasidasa had given an accurate calculation of the distance between the Sun and Earth.

The Quest of Astronomers to find the distance of Sun

The Greek Astronomers were known for their contribution to the scientific field in understanding the heavenly bodies.

  • Archimedes, an ancient Greek Mathematician and Philosopher of the 3rd century BC, estimated the distance of Sun from Earth as 10000 times the radius of Earth.
  • Later, Hipparchus (2nd century BC) gave an estimate of 490 times the radius of Earth.
  • Ptolemy considered the distance to be 1210 times the radius of Earth.

However, Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), a German Mathematician and Astronomer realized that these estimates were significantly low. Kepler’s law of Planetary Motion allowed astronomers to calculate the relative distance of the planets from Sun. This was also aided by the invention of telescope in the beginning of the 17th century which helped them to get more accurate measurements.

However, Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), a German Mathematician and Astronomer realized that these estimates were significantly low. Kepler’s law of Planetary Motion allowed astronomers to calculate the relative distance of the planets from Sun. This was also aided by the invention of telescope in the beginning of the 17th century which helped them to get more accurate measurements.

However the most modern calculations in 20th century estimate the distance to be somewhere around 23455 times the radius of Earth (149,431,805 kms assuming radius of Earth to be 6371 kms)

Srila Prabhupada writes in one of his purports

Modern scientific calculations are subject to one change after another, and therefore they are uncertain. We have to accept the calculations of the Vedic literature. These Vedic calculations are steady; the astronomical calculations made long ago and recorded in the Vedic literature are correct even now. Whether the Vedic calculations or modern ones are better may remain a mystery for others, but as far as we are concerned, we accept the Vedic calculations to be correct.

According to modern calculation

Average distance between the Sun and Earth =149 million kms = 92 million miles.

However, the orbit of the Earth is not a perfect circle, but an ellipse. Sometimes the Earth is closer to the Sun and sometimes it is farther.

Shortest distance between Sun and Earth (perihelion) = 91 million miles = 147 million kms (early January)

Longest distance between Sun and Earth (aphelion) = 94.5 million miles = 152 million kms (early July)

It is surprising to note that Tulasidasa who lived in 16th century could give the most accurate estimation that is very close to the estimation by 20th century astronomers.

Shortest distance between Sun and Earth (perihelion) = 91 million miles = 147 million kms (early January)

Longest distance between Sun and Earth (aphelion) = 94.5 million miles = 152 million kms (early July)

 Let us decipher the calculation in Hanuman Chalisa…

Hanuman, in his childhood, assuming the Sun to be a ripe mango, jumped to catch it. Tulasidasa recounts this incident in his Hanuman Chalisa as follows:

yuga-sahasra-yojana para bhanu
leelyo tahi madhura phala janu

Considering the Sun to be a sweet fruit, Hanuman jumped to swallow it.

Here the distance he travelled is mentioned as yuga-sahasra-yojana. Let us try to decipher this.

What is a yuga? According to Bhagavad-gita, one day of Brahma is called kalpa and is equal to 1000 yugas and this is followed by a similar duration of night.

ratrim yuga-sahasrantamte ‘ho-ratra-vidojanah

1 yuga = 4,320,000 years = 12000 divine years

(1 divine year = 360 years according to human calculation)

This is also confirmed in Manu-samhita: etad dvaadasha sahasram devanam yugamuchyate

According to the above verse from Hanuman Chalisa, the distance between Sun and Earth is

yuga-sahasra-yojana = 12000 x 1000 yojanas.

Yojana is a Vedic measure of distance and approximately equals to 8 miles (according to the 14th century scholar Parameshvara, the originator of drgganita system). And 1 mile = 1.60934 kilometers.

According to the calculation presented in Hanuman Chalisa

Distance between Sun and Earth = 12000 x 1000 yojanas = 96 million miles = 153.6 million kms, which is much closer to the calculation of the modern scientists.

The assumptions we have made in the above calculations are as follows:

  1. We assumed yuga to mean the number 12000 based on the time calculation system of Vedic period based on the statement from Bhagavad-gita and Manu Samhita.
  2. We approximated 1 yojana = 8 miles based on what Srila Prabhupada has mentioned in his purports. However there is still disagreement among scholars as to whether it is 5 miles or 8 miles. Some other calculations indicate values ranging from 7.6 miles to 8.5 miles.

But it is astonishing that Tulasidasa mentioned the distance to this level of accuracy as early as in 16th century when the Western astronomers, with the help of telescope, were trying to figure out the distance.

In Hanuman Chalisa,- it is said :
“Yug sahastra yojan per Bhanu!
Leelyo taahi madhur phal janu!!

1 Yug = 12000 years
1 Sahastra = 1000
1 Yojan = 8 Miles

Yug x Sahastra x Yojan = par Bhanu
12000 x 1000 x 8 miles = 96,000,000 miles

1 mile = 1.6kms

96,000,000 miles x 1.6kms = 1,536,000,000 kms / 96,000,000 miles to Sun

NASA has said that, it is the exact distance between Earth and Sun (Bhanu).
Which proves Hanuman Ji did jump to Sun,
thinking it as a sweet fruit (Madhur phal).

It is really interesting how accurate and meaningful our ancient scriptures are.

Unfortunately barely it is recognized, interpreted accurately or realized by any in today’s time.

 Here are some spiritual benefits of the reciting the Hanuman Chalisa:

It is believed among Hindus that reciting Hanuman Chalisa calls upon Hanuman’s involvement in critical problems and helps wards off evil spirits and negative energy.

  1. Recital of the Hanuman Chalisa helps reduce the effects of Sade Sati and helps those suffering due to Saturn if they read Hanuman Chalisa on Saturday for peace and prosperity.
  2. Hanuman Chalisa can help those troubled with nightmares if they place the Chalisa under their pillow before sleeping.
  3. Reading Hanuman Chalisa is beneficial if one wants to get rid of the karmic effects of the bad deeds done in the past.
  4. Reciting Hanuman Chalisa helps people who have been distracted by a bad company. It helps in the reformation of those fallen prey to objectionable habits.
  5. It eliminates disagreements and promotes unanimity and contentment. Reciting Hanuman Chalisa promotes harmony and eliminates unnecessary arguments by making one aware.
  6. Reciting the opening verses of the Hanuman Chalisa helps one get rid of the bad deeds done in the previous and present birth.
  7. The benefits of chanting or listening to Hanuman Chalisa are infinite and incredible. It is believed that if a devotee recites these 40 verses with pure devotion and focus, he or she gets rewarded and all the wishes come true. Regular recitation of the Chalisa bestows you with the Lord’s blessings and grace you with glorious powers.
  8. It also cures small lifestyle ailments such as headache, sleeplessness, anxiety, depression etc.
  9. It kills laziness and procrastination and makes one more efficient.
  10. Daily recitation of Hanuman Chalisa with dedication and devotion eliminate all sorts of disagreements and arguments in a family and promotes unanimity, contentment, happiness and peace in life.
  11. One the verses from Hanuman Chalisa reads as “Bhoot Pichash Nikat nahi aaven, mahavir jab naam sunave” which can be translated to – no evil spirit can affect a person who takes the name of Lord Hanuman and recites Hanuman Chalisa at the top of their voice. It removes all sort of negativity from the mind and soul of the family members and brings peace and harmony within the family.

When to chant Hanuman Chalisa

Hanuman Chalisa can be recited both in the morning and evening. It takes not more than 10 minutes to read this beautiful hymn. It is said that each verse or chaupai has its own significance. If one is unable to read all 40 verses, then one can choose to recite only certain ones to suit their needs.

  • For removal of bad karma- first opening verse
  • Wisdom and strength – second opening verse
  • Attainment of divine knowledge – 1ST verse
  • Removal of bad company and habits – 3rd verse
  • Cultivation of devotion – verses 7 and 8
  • Protection from poisons and snake bites – 11th verse
  • Removes misunderstanding between sons and daughters –

12th verse

  • To gain fame – 13th – 15th verse
  • Recovery of lost status, promotion in jobs- 16th -17th verse
  • Remove obstacles; accomplish difficult tasks – 20th verse
  • Protection from adverse planetary influences – 22nd verse
  • Protection from black magic and evil spirits – 24th verse
  • To achieve good health -25th verse
  • Liberation from crisis – 26th verse
  • Fulfillment of desires – 27th – 28th verses
  • Victory over enemies – 30th verse
  • Occult powers and wealth – 31st verse
  • To follow ethics and have a fulfilling life – 32nd -35th verses,
  • For mental peace – 36th verse
  • For grace of Lord Hanuman – 37th verse

More significantly, when the Chalisa is read at night times, it wards off evil forces from one`s life and removes the sins committed knowingly or unknowingly. It is believed that those who have major tasks to be achieved should recite these verses 1008 times on an auspicious night of Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday or on moola star day. One will have all obstacles removed in the way of good life and also get the protection and grace of Hanuman when recited at night. The famous yogi saint of Northern India, Neem Karoli Baba asked his devotees to recite Hanuman Chalisa during difficult times.

………. To be continued

In the Vedic Hinduism, a homa (Sanskrit: होम) also known as havan, is a fire ritual performed on special occasions by a Hindu priest usually for a homeowner (“grihasth”: one possessing a home).

It is rooted in the Vedic religion, and was adopted in ancient times by Buddhism and Jainism. The practice spread from India to Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Homa rituals remain an important part of many Hindu ceremonies, and variations of homa continue to be practiced in current-day Buddhism, particularly in parts of Tibet and Japan. It is also found in modern Jainism.


Homa traditions are found all across Asia, from Samarkand to Japan, over a 3000-year history. A homa, in all its Asian variations, is a ceremonial ritual that offers food to fire and is ultimately linked to the traditions contained in the Vedic religion. The tradition reflects a reverence for fire and cooked food (pākayajña) that developed in Asia, and the Brahmana layers of the Vedas are the earliest records of this ritual reverence.

The yajñā or fire sacrifice became a distinct feature of the early śruti rituals. A śrauta ritual is a form of quid pro quo where through the fire ritual, a sacrificer offered something to the gods and goddesses, and the sacrificer expected something in return. The Vedic ritual consisted of sacrificial offerings of something edible or drinkable, such as milk, clarified butter, yoghurt, rice, barley, an animal, or anything of value, offered to the gods with the assistance of fire priests. This Vedic tradition split into śrauta (śruti-based) and Smarta (Smṛti-based).

The homa ritual practices were observed by different Buddhist and Jaina traditions, states Phyllis Granoff, with their texts appropriating the “ritual eclecticism” of Hindu traditions, albeit with variations that evolved through medieval times. The homa-style Vedic sacrifice ritual, states Musashi Tachikawa, was absorbed into Mahayana Buddhism and homa rituals continue to be performed in some Buddhist traditions in Tibet, China and Japan.


The homa ritual grammar is common to many sanskara (rite of passage) ceremonies in various Hindu traditions. The Vedic fire ritual, at the core of various homa ritual variations in Hinduism, is a “bilaterally symmetrical” structure of a rite. It often combines fire and water, burnt offerings and soma, fire as masculine, earth and water as feminine, the fire vertical and reaching upwards, while the altar, offerings and liquids being horizontal. The homa ritual’s altar (fire pit) is itself a symmetry, most often a square, a design principle that is also at the heart of temples and mandapas in Indian religions. The sequence of homa ritual events similarly, from beginning to end, are structured around the principles of symmetry.

The fire-altar (vedi or homa/havan kunda) is generally made of brick or stone or a copper vessel, and is almost always built specifically for the occasion, being dismantled immediately afterwards. This fire-altar is invariably built in square shape. While very large vedis are occasionally built for major public homas, the usual altar may be as small as 1 × 1 foot square and rarely exceeds 3 × 3 feet square.

A ritual space of homa, the altar is temporary and movable. The first step in a homa ritual is the construction of the ritual enclosure (mandapa), and the last step is its deconstruction. The altar and mandapa is consecrated by a priest, creating a sacred space for the ritual ceremony, with recitation of mantras. With hymns sung, the fire is started, offerings collected. The tranquili enters, symbolically cleanses himself or herself, with water, joins the homa ritual, gods invited, prayers recited, conch shell blown. The sacrificers pour offerings and libations into the fire, with hymns sung, to the sounds of svaha. The oblations and offerings typically consist of clarified butter (ghee), milk, curd, sugar, saffron, grains, coconut, perfumed water, incense, seeds, petals and herbs.

The altar and the ritual is a symbolic representation of the Hindu cosmology, a link between reality and the worlds of gods and living beings. The ritual is also a symmetric exchange, a “quid pro quo”, where humans offer something to the gods through the medium of fire, and in return expect that the gods will reciprocate with strength and that which they have power to influence.


The homa (goma) ritual of consecrated fire is found in some Buddhist traditions of Tibet, China and Japan. Its roots are the Vedic ritual, it evokes Buddhist deities, and is performed by qualified Buddhist priests. In Chinese translations of Buddhist texts such as Kutadanta Sutta, Dighanikaya and Suttanipata, dated to be from the 6th to 8th century, the Vedic homa practice is attributed to Buddha’s endorsement along with the claim that Buddha was the original teacher of the Vedas in his previous lives.

In some Buddhist homa traditions, such as in Japan, the central deity invoked in this ritual is usually Acalanātha (Fudō Myōō 不動明王, lit. immovable wisdom king). Acalanātha is another name for the god Rudra in the Vedic tradition, for Vajrapani or Chakdor in Tibetan traditions, and of Sotshirvani in Siberia. The Acala Homa ritual procedure follows the same Vedic protocols found in Hinduism, with offerings into the fire by priests who recite mantras being the main part of the ritual and the devotees clap hands as different rounds of hymns have been recited. Other versions of the Vedic homa (goma) rituals are found in the Tendai and Shingon Buddhist traditions as well as in Shugendō and Shinto in Japan.

In most Shingon temples, this ritual is performed daily in the morning or the afternoon, and is a requirement for all acharyas to learn this ritual upon entering the priesthood. The original medieval era texts of the goma rituals are in Siddham Sanskrit seed words and Chinese, with added Japanese katakana to assist the priests in proper pronunciation. Larger scale ceremonies often include multiple priests, chanting, the beating of Taiko drums and blowing of conch shell (horagai) around the mandala with fire as the ceremonial focus. Homa rituals (sbyin sreg) widely feature in Tibetan Buddhism and Bön and are linked to a variety of Mahayana Buddhas and tantric deities.


Homa rituals are also found in Jainism. For example, the Ghantakarn ritual is a homa sacrifice, which has evolved over the centuries, and where ritual offerings are made into fire, with pancamrit (milk, curd, sugar, saffron and clarified butter) and other symbolic items such as coconut, incense, seeds and herbs. The mantra recited by Jains include those in Sanskrit, and the 16th-century Svetambara text Ghantakarna Mantra Stotra is a Sanskrit text which describes the homa ritual dedicated to Ghantakarna Mahavira in one of the Jaina sects.

The Adipurana of Jainism, in section 47.348, describes a Vedic fire ritual in the memory of Rishabha. Traditional Jaina wedding ceremonies, like among the Hindus, is a Vedic fire sacrifice ritual.

Most of us do not know the importance of Swaha. The Rigvedic Aryans started using fire to carry the gods to the gods during the Yagya tradition. But “Swaha” was chanted while offering Havis in the Yajna altar. The meaning of Swaha itself is very interesting.

Chanting the mantra for the purpose of invoking the deva, chanting the swaha and offering the prescribed havan material to the gods through fire. The prescribed natural meaning of this swaha is to deliver – but to whom and to whom? That is, the necessary physical matter to his beloved. This is the last and most important ritual of the Havan ritual. No yajna can be considered successful until one assumes the deity of the future. But the gods can take such an eclipse only when offered by fire through “Swaha”.

Certainly, from the beginning of the structure of the mantra legislations, consideration had been started on the fact that how to bring the future to God for his sake? Various attempts by various measures were made while administering the sacrificial law. Ultimately, Agni was found to be the best medium and “swaha” was formed as the appropriate word.      

The mythological narratives related to Agni and Swaha are also very interesting. Srimad Bhagavat and Shiva Purana have described descriptions related to Swaha. Apart from this, in the Vedic texts like Rigveda, Yajurveda, many suktas have been composed on the importance of fire.

According to the Speaking Tree of the Times of India, Swaha means to deliver correctly. In other words, to say the necessary physical matter to his beloved. In fact, no Yajna can be considered successful until the deity of the havan is performed. However, the gods can only take such an eclipse when offered by fire through swaha.

According to mythology, Swaha was the daughter of Daksha Prajapati. He was married to Agnidev. Agnidev receives Havishya through his wife, Swaha, and through him the same deity invoked gets to the deity. At the same time, according to the second legend, Aghadev’s wife Swaha had three sons named Pavak, Pavman and Shuchi.

Another interesting story is also related to the origin of boon swaha given by Lord Krishna. According to this, Swaha was an art of nature, which was married to Agni at the insistence of the gods. Lord Krishna himself gave this boon to Swaha that only through that the deity would be able to accept Havisya. The sacrificial purpose is fulfilled only when the deity invoked is delivered to their favorite enjoyment.

In Hinduism, people often perform Havan before doing any auspicious work. During the havan, people chant the word ‘Swaha’ while offering sacrifices. But very few people know why the word Swaha is spoken.

Actually, Swaha has a fixed natural meaning – to deliver correctly. Pandit Vivek Garola said that the offering of havan material is offered to the deities through fire, chanting the word ‘Swaha’ to invoke the gods. No Yajna can be considered successful until the deity is accepted by the divine, but the deity accepts such a soul only if it is devoured by fire through fire. According to the legend Swaha is the wife of Agnidev. In such a situation, after chanting Swaha, the havan of the prescribed havan material is offered to the deities through fire.

Havan Kund

Havan or Homa is an age old sacred Fire ritual in Hinduism which has been performed since Vedic era in order to invoke the powerful energies of the Divine. This ritual is also performed to seek blessings of Gods and Goddesses by igniting the Holy Fire. In this sacred ritual, special offering are kindled in the Holy Fire while chanting the Sanskrit mantras. The ritual of Havan is conducted as per the Holy Vedic scriptures. The sacred Fire and the mantras fill the ambience with purifying and auspicious positive vibrations and thus benefit everyone who is attending the Homa in a splendid manner. It purifies the body, mind and soul, elevates spiritually, makes the mind calm and offers a sense of tranquility.

Why Havan Kund

The rich Hindu rituals entail invoking the celestial presence of the Divine in the idols of the deities or in the Kalash (vase). But in this Kalyuga, due to pollution, the air, water and earth are all polluted and there are rare chances of them being pure. Hence, if there are impurities when the Kalash or the deity idols are being made, then invoking the divine presence in these idols or the Kalash would not be possible. Therefore, we put to use ‘Agni’ (Fire), as fire is the one of the two elements that cannot be polluted, the other being Akash (space). We cannot conduct traditional rituals in space hence; we carry out the spiritual sadhana through Fire. Also in Sanskrit fire is known as “Pavaka”, meaning one who purifies”. Thus, the Fire element is one of the purest elements that purify everything that comes into contact with it.

Havan Kund Usage

Haven Kund is basically a reservoir in which the sacred offerings are kindled. The Haven Kunds are energy centres where divinity is evoked. Various Haven Samagri which include wood, herbs and more are burnt inside the Haven Kund along with offering of ghee and Japa of various mantra to invoke positivity and various energies. The shape of the Haven Kund is said to generate a special energy field and also store this divine energy. The energies generated due to the Haven have properties which are bacteriostatic. The peculiar shape of the Haven Kund helps to generates, stores and spreads the divine energies in the surrounding atmosphere, thus filling the atmosphere with divinity.

Types of Havan Kund

Different shapes of Haven Kund are available today; the shape of the Haven Kund too has a deep meaning attached to it. The meaning and significance of different shapes of the Haven Kund are mentioned in our ancient scriptures. Let us take a look at few types of Havan Kund along with their significance:

Rectangular or Square




Yoni Kunda


Lotus-shaped and more

The shape of the Haven Kund also depends upon the Sankalpa taken and the situation of the Yajrnana. The most common Haven Kunds that are generally used are as follows:

Chaturkara (Square shape) Havan Kund

These Haven Kunds are generally used to gain Siddhis and to accomplish all the work.

Semi- circle shaped Havan Kund

The Semi- circle shaped Havan Kunda is known as the Ardha Chandrakara Haven Kund which is generally used to get peace, happiness, and harmonious family life.

The Triangle shaped Havan Kund

 The triangle shaped Havan Kund are also known as the Trikonakara Haven Kund or the Trikon Kund, These Haven Kunds are designed in order to win over enemies.

The Vrut Yajna Kund

 The Vrut Haven Kund is circular in shape. This Haven Kund is designed for peace and maintaining public welfare. In order to win over unknown threat and enemies the Star shaped Haven Kund is used. This Haven Kund is known as the Pushtrkon Kund. The Padma or the Lotus Haven Kund is designed to attract wealth and also to be protected against evil energies.

The Heart shaped Yajna Kund

 The Heart shaped Yajna Kund is known as the Yoni Kund. This Haven Kund is designed to manifest desires like attracting love and to conceive a child.

The Star shaped Yajna Kund

 The Star shaped Haven Kund is also known as the Pushtrkon Kund. The shape of this Kund is designed to win over the unseen and seen enemies.

The Yajna Kund with 6 angles

 The Havan Kund with six angles is generally used for stopping death.

The Padma Kund

The Lotus shaped Haven Kund or the Padma Kund is especially designed to attract wealth. According to some ancient texts. The Padma Kund is also designed to protect one from evil energies.

Homam or Yagya are one of the most powerful Vedic rituals that serve as a remedy to achieve Karmic evolution. Homam helps in burning the negative karmas of the past and paves way for a bright future. The process of performing the Yagya has been clearly illustrated in the ancient Vedic texts.

Benefits of Yajyen

Yajurveda gives knowledge to do pious deeds. The first mantra of Yajurveda (1/1) says that human beings must perform Yajyen in which offerings are put in burning fire with Ved mantras. Then mantra says it will prevent the infectious disease and will give constant pleasure. Saamveda mantra 534 says that the matters like ghee and samagri when poured in fire while performing Yajyen, then these matters go in sky and create rain and make the atmosphere pure. Saamveda mantra 536 says that in YAJYEN, the matters (aahuti/offerings) goes up to sun and gives strength to sun to cause rain. Saamveda mantra 537 tells the offerings in a Yajyen must touch the ray of light of sun. Saamveda mantra 539 says that the offerings in a Yajyen, goes to the sky to create rain so that the animal, birds etc., are increased in number. Saamveda mantra 1379 says that Yajyen must be performed while chanting ved mantras and mantra 1380 says that age is increased by Yajyen. Saamveda mantra 1363 says thatone who loves Yajyen, he well concentrates/meditates. Saamveda mantra 1270 says that the offerings in Yajyen goes in the sky through ray of light of sun. Yajurveda mantra 1/2 says that Yajyen purifies the earth. It is stable in ray of light of sun and goes to sky and sun through air. Yajyen purifies the air and holds the universe spreading pleasure all over. When Yajyen is performed then air touches the burning fire and scientifically is purified just as water is boiled on fire and becomes purified. Then the pure air goes up and the old air starts touching the fire and after becoming purified goers to sky and this procedure is continued till the end of Yajyen. Yajyen is basically performed by using a stick of mango tree.

Ancient texts including Vedas and Upanishads mentioned a technique called Yagya, which has application to purify the environment specifically polluted air. Preliminary evidences suggested that Yagya reduce air pollution generated SO2 and NO2 level along with biological air pollutants such as microorganisms.

What is the significance of Havan?

It is believed that performing Hawan gets the devotee closer to the God. The natural ingredients used during fire worship, clean the atmosphere and aura, thereby diminishing negativity and flushing out all evil.

It is believed that performing Hawan gets the devotee closer to the God. The natural ingredients used during fire worship, clean the atmosphere and aura, thereby diminishing negativity and flushing out all evil

Does Havan purify air?

Havan is the best way to purify the air and produce oxygen, which would be a big positive in the current scenario. The fact is backed by science,” said Pramod Raghav, who runs the NGO. “The ingredients put in the fire help cleanse the air,” said Devendra Siani, a Civil Engineer.

Scientific Benefits

1. Havan Purifies the surrounding air.

2. Creates a pure, nutritional and medicinal atmosphere.

3. Fire act as a pesticide for the home.

4. Earth attracts minerals due to heat.

5. Mantras sound energy is very good for eardrums.

6. Reduction in the bacterial count where Havan is performed.

7. Sunrise and sunset are the times at which havan are performed offer maximum healing to atmosphere and humans.

8. Carbon dioxide in small quantities gets mixed with aromatic vapors and act as a cerebral stimulant.

9. Yagna’s ash as an effective fertilizer.

10. Removal of foul odors from the surrounding atmosphere.

What is difference between yajna and Homam?

In a broader sense ishti is a yajna but when the yajna is done for just a few hours in a single day to fulfill one’s minor desires, it is called ishti. Ishti is done to please the God that can fulfill those particular desires.

The different yajna’s depending on the actual time you spend on them are classified as:

  1. Ishti (1 or 2 hours, e.g., Lakshmi-Narayana Ishti, Sudarshana Ishti, Narasimha Ishti, Hayagriva Ishti (for better studies), Vishwaksena Ishti (to remove obstacles) and Vaibhava Ishti (for wealth)
  2. Homam (1 day)
  3. Yajna (3, 5, 11 days or 3 months)
  4. Maha-yaagam (1 or 2 months)
  5. Advaram (6 months or 1 year)
  6. Satram (50, 100, 500 years or 1000 years)

Does Yagya purify air?

Ancient texts including Vedas and Upanishads mentioned a technique called Yagya, which has application to purify the environment specifically polluted air. Preliminary evidences suggested that Yagya reduces air pollution generated SO2 and NO2 level along with biological air pollutants such as microorganisms.

What is Havan Samagri made of?

Havan Samagri is a mixture of dried herbal roots and leaves that are burned during yagnas and homas. It is made from ayurvedic havan exotic herbs, black til, Jo, 32 types of dhoop, Bhimseni kapoor, rose petals, sandalwood powder, lobaan, ghee, agarbatti, chandan, and turmeric.

Is Havan good for environment?

Havan is an Ancient Ritual which is performed to purify the atmosphere and the environment. The main ingredient used in Havan is mango wood when burnt releases Formic Aldehyde, a type of gas which is used for killing harmful bacteria’s, thus purifies the atmosphere, as per the research of scientist, Trello from France.

In Sanatan Dharma and Hindu Philosophy, number 108 has a great significance. Generally, it is said that malas of 108 beeds is chanted for gaining spiritual strength only. However, this is not true for spiritual strength, but is now significant for Yoga and Meditation practitioners. Its special meaning is mirrored in countless different interpretations & context from mathematics and astronomy to religious rites, spirtual practices & even medicine architectures, the number 108 has been always a highly revered number since ancient times.

In yoga, the number 108 refers to spiritual completion. That’s the reason why malas used for japa (silent repetition of a mantra) are composed of 108 beads – with an additional “meru” bead, which when reached, prompts the practitioner to count the mala beads in reverse order. Pranayama cycles are often repeated in 108 cycles and even sun salutations are often completed in nine rounds of the 12 postures, which when multiplied, adds up to 108. Ancient yogis believed that we can attune ourselves to the rhythms of creation by completing practices in rounds of this sacred number.

108 seems to be a mysterious number that connects the ancient world to the modern world and also connects the physical realm to the metaphysical realm. The number 108 is sacred in mathematics, geometry, astrology, numerology and in many world religions and spiritual traditions.

Furthermore, the number 108 has significance with regards to the distance between the earth and the moon and between the earth and the sun.

The distance between the moon and the earth is 108 times the diameter of the moon – but only once a month, because according to NASA the moon’s orbit around the Earth is not a perfect circle but more of an ellipse. Similarly, the distance between the earth and the sun is 108 times the diameter of the sun. Earth’s orbit around the Sun is however also an ellipse. And so on September 18-19 the distance of the Sun from Earth is 108 times that of the Sun’s diameter.

Consider the number of days in a leap year – 366 days. When we multiply the three numbers we arrive at 108. 3 x 6 x 6 = 108.

Heart Chakra

The chakras are the intersections of subtle nerve channels or nadiis, and there are said to be a total of 108 nadiis converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization.

108 defilements in Buddhism

In Buddhism, it is among the tenets that there are exactly 108 types of defilements – no more and no less. This could be the reason a bell is usually chimed exactly 108 times in Japanese Buddhist Temples to mark the end of an old year and to usher into a new year.

There are 108 earthly temptations

In Buddhism, it is also believed that the road to nirvana is laden with exactly 108 temptations. So, every Buddhist has to overcome 108 earthly temptations to achieve nirvana. In addition, the ring of prayer beads worn around the waist of Zen priests is usually made of 108 beads.

Tibetans have 108 sacred books

All their holy writings in Tibet, as much as it is, have been divided into exactly 108 sacred books. Tibetan Buddhism also believes that there are 108 sins and 108 delusions of the mind. Some of these sins and delusions are callousness, blasphemy, anger, abuse, and aggression.

The basis of all creation

A certain aspect of Indian cosmology defines the number 108 as the basis of all creation. The number ‘1’ in 108 represents Divine Consciousness. Zero indicates null or void implying that everything on this Earth is vanity since all creatures are here only temporarily. Eight represents the infinity of creation.

108’s significance in astrology

There are 12 zodiacs and 9 planets and when multiplied, we get 108. Additionally, there are 27 lunar mansions and they are divided into 4 quarters. When 27 is multiplied by 4, the result is 108.

 108 images of Lord Buddha

Kathmandu is said to be the capital of Buddhism and there are exactly 108 images of Lord Buddha, erected in and around the place in reverence of the Buddhism deity.

There are 108 names for deities

Each deity in Hinduism has 108 names.

Sarsen Circle Stonehenge has a diameter of 108 feet

Sarsen Circle Stonehenge, in the UK, is one of the world’s most famous prehistoric monuments. Interestingly, it has a diameter of 108 feet. The structure of the monument is similar to that of PhNom Bakheng, an ancient Shiva Temple located in Cambodia. The temple also has 108 towers around it.

108 types of feelings in a human

Both Buddhism and Hinduism believe that every human being has 108 different types of feelings. 36 of these feelings revolve round their past, 36 revolve round the present, and the remaining 36 are based on their dreams and future ambitions.

The significance of 108 degree Fahrenheit

When the internal body temperature reaches 108 degrees Fahrenheit, the vital organs in the body will begin to shut down.

Mathematical significance of 108

Ancient Indians were astonishing with mathematics and they were the ones that discovered the significance of the number – 108 a long time ago. First of all, they discovered the links between 108 and 9, a more sacred number. The link between 9 and 108 is much more than one being a multiple of the other. Here are some of the interesting mathematical relationships between 9 and 108.

11 x 22 x 33 = 108. This means (1) x (2×2) x (3x3x3) = 108.

When 108 is divided by 2, the answer is 54 and 5 + 4 = 9.

When 54 is further divided by 2, it will lead to 27 and 2 + 7 = 9.

When 1 is added to 0 and 8, the answer is 9 (1+0+8 = 9).

When 108 is multiplied by 2, the resultant figures will result in 9 when added together – 108 x 2 = 216; 2+1+6 = 9.

When 108 is multiplied by 3, the resultant figures will result in 9 when added together – 108 x 2 = 324; 3+2+5 = 9.

Other reasons number 108 is sacred

There are exactly 108 sacred sites (also called pithas) all over India. There are 108 Upanishads, and there are 108 Marmas with regard to Ayurveda. There are 108 stars in Chinese astrology and while 72 of them are malevolent, the remaining 36 are beneficial. Tibetan legends are made of 108 Masters and 108 initiates.

108 saints are celebrated in Japan and they are also known as Vajradhatu. The Buddha has 108 names and there are 108 lamps devoted to him. Both Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva have 108 names each.

The division of Christian holiday from Soul’s day which is on November 2nd to 25th December has 54 days and 54 nights. The significance of the number lies in the fact that within those two dates, light transformed into darkness a total of 108 times and the reverse also occurred the same number of times.

Most Buddhist temples usually have 108 steps and 108 columns. A very good example of such temples is the temple at Angkor. The temple is built around 108 huge stones.

In Hinduism and Buddhism, 1 represents the Divine or the universe, 0 symbolizes the emptiness or completeness at the beginning of a spiritual journey, and 8 stands for infinity and eternity. It is said that there are 108 energy lines (nadis) converging to form the heart chakra. Ayurveda knows 108 sacred intersection points (marmas) that hold the vital energy in the body. There are 108 known Upanishads, sacred texts of wisdom of the ancient sages. Hinduists knows 108 names for female deities, 108 forms of Indian dance, 108 types of meditation, 108 sacred sites (pithas) throughout India, 108 steps that lead up to most temples, and 108 alleged stages the soul has to pass through until it can reach enlightenment. Legends even tell of Indian sadhus who could reach such deep states of meditation that they required only 108 breaths a day. To this day, the significance of the number is still deeply rooted in India: if you ever happen to get in the undesirable situation to need medical help while travelling the country: 1-0-8 is the national emergency phone number.

Translated into the context of yoga practice, 1 is said to represent the focus on one thing and the verticality of breath as it flows through the body, 0 is for having zero senses and preconceptions when stepping on your mat, and 8 stands for uniting with the flow of infinity. Yogis traditionally do 108 sun salutations on solstices and equinoxes in order to express their gratitude and devotion to the practice. Occasionally these are performed as 9 rounds of sun salutations composed of the 12 asanas in a Surya Namaskar, again totaling 108. Some schools of meditation teach that the practitioner should perform 100 cycles of a mantra meditation for himself, plus 8 extra rounds for those who don’t have the opportunity to practice meditation themselves. Pranayama is traditionally taught and practiced in at least 108 repetitions to unfold its full effects.

Number 108 is important not just for human beings, but also on the scale of earth and solar system. According to the Surya Siddhanta, an ancient Indian astronomical work, the sunlight moves at a speed of 2,202 yojanas in 0.5 nimisha. One yojana is nine miles. 2,202 yojanas amount to 19,818 miles. One nimisha is equal to 16/75 of a second. Half a nimisha amounts to 8/75 of a second, which is 0.106666 seconds. A speed of 19,818 miles in 0.10666 seconds equals 185,793 miles per second. This is approximately in line with the modern calculations, according to which the speed of light is 186,282 miles per second. Modern science has arrived at this number with great difficulty and all kinds of instruments, while a few thousand years ago, they got this number by simple observation of how the human system and the solar system function together.

Back to one cycle of axial procession – 25,920 divided by 60 (which is also the number of heart beats per minute if you are healthy) – comes to 432. Four hundred thirty two is a number that comes up in various cultures – the Norse culture, the ancient Jewish culture, the Egyptian culture, the Mesopotamian culture, and very much in the Indian culture here. Why 432? If you are in good health and in good condition, your heart beats about 60 times per minute, which is 3600 per hour, and 3600 x 24 equals 86,400 heartbeats per day. If you divide 864 by 2, again you have 432.

If you are healthy, you take about 15 breaths per minute. If you have done lots of sadhana, it could be only 12. 15 breaths per minute means 900 breaths per hour and 21,600 per day. 216 multiplied by 2 becomes 432 again. If you take the circumference of the earth – there is something called a nautical mile which is the real mile in the sense that it has something to do with the way the planet is. The other units of measurement were created for ease of calculation.

You know there are 360° in a circle. Likewise, there are 360° upon the planet, and each degree is divided into 60 minutes. One of these minutes accounts for one nautical mile. That means the circumference of the earth at the equator is 21,600 nautical miles – that is also how many breaths you take per day. That means the planet is spinning on time and you are doing well. If the planet was not spinning on time, it would be no good at all for us. If you are not in tune with it, it is also no good for you.

If you’ve been practising yoga for a while, you may have heard mention of the number 108. A mala consists of 108 prayer beads and a yoga mala consists of 108 sun salutations. But what makes 108 such a special number? As with so many questions in life, the initial answer is ‘It depends who you ask.’ The number 108 holds great significance in a variety of fields. So let’s have a look at some of the ways in which the number 108 is significant and see how these may inspire us in our life and practice.

108 and the universe

108 is a particularly significant number in the mathematics of the universe.

As mentioned earlier, the diameter of the Sun is 108 times the diameter of the Earth and the average distance of the Sun and the Moon to Earth is 108 times their respective diameters. Mathematicians from the Vedic tradition came to view 108 as the number representing the wholeness of existence. Placing significance on the number 108 reminds us of our place in the cosmic order of things.

108 and the divine

108 appears as a number of significance within various Eastern religious traditions.

In the Hindu tradition, there are 108 attendants of Shiva. In Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Lord Krishna in Brindavan had 108 followers. The words of the Buddha are recorded in the Tibetan Kangyur in 108 volumes. A bell is chimed 108 times in Buddhist temples in Japan to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Placing significance on the number 108 connects us to the divine source of all things.

108 and the human body

As we focus in on the human body, the number 108 holds special significance.

There are 108 marma points, considered to be sacred places in the body. In Ayurveda, these pressure points are seen as vital for giving life to living beings for it is at these points that consciousness and flesh intersect. Additionally, there are 108 nadis, or energy lines, which converge to form the heart chakra. Placing significance on the number 108 embraces the life-giving energy so vital for human existence.

108 and the tradition of yoga

The number 108 has emerged as a truly significant number within the tradition of yoga.

According to yogic tradition, there are 108 sacred sites known as pithas, throughout India. There are 108 Upanishads (a collection of Indian religious and philosophical texts from as early as 800 BCE) and 108 Puranas (Sanskrit sacred writings on Hindu mythology from as early as 400 BCE). There are 54 letters in Sanskrit, where each can be seen as either masculine (Shiva) or feminine (Shakti), and therefore totalling 108. Placing significance on the number 108 aligns the yogi to the ancient tradition of yoga.

108 and the practice of yoga and meditation

In yoga, the number 108 has significance as the number representing spiritual completion.

Sun salutations are often performed in nine rounds of the 12 postures which totals 108 poses. A yoga mala consists of 108 sun salutations. Pranayama is also often completed in cycles of 108. A mala is traditionally a string of 108 prayer beads with a guru bead. As you pray, you move along the beads, reciting your chosen mantra 108 times. As we practise chanting, breath work, or asana in rounds of this sacred number, we become aligned with the rhythm of the universe and the energy of the divine source. Placing significance on the number 108 connects the essence of each individual yoga practice to the whole.

Earth, Time and Body connection – Just like a circlethe Planet has 360° and each degree is divided into 60 minutes.  One of these minutes’ accounts for one nautical mile. That means the circumference of the Earth at the Equator is 21,600 nautical miles. On average, we take this many breaths a day. This connects our human body with the planet.

Mala Bead/Prayer Beads – In Hinduism and Buddhism, a mala comes as a string of 108 beads plus one guru or guiding bead. (A mala is like a Catholic rosary and is used for counting as you repeat a mantra.)

The Chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization.

‘Harshad’ Number is an integer divisible by the sum of its digits. 108 is a ‘Harshad’ number. ‘Harshad’ in Sanskrit means ‘joy-giver.’

Meditation – There are believed to be 108 different types of meditation.  

Paths to God – Some people believe that there are 108 paths to God.

Dance Forms – There are 108 traditional Indian dance forms. (Traditional Indian dances are used to worship God or tell stories of God.)

In Buddhism, there are said to be 108 earthly desires in mortals, 108 lies humans tell and 108 human delusions.

108 feelings – Buddhist believe there are 108 feelings calculated as follows:

6 Senses (Smell, Touch, Taste, Sight, Hearing and Consciousness)

x 3 Pleasant, Painful or Neutral feelings

x 2 Internally or externally generated feelings

x 3 Past, Present or Future feelings

Therefore, 36 past, 36 present and 36 future feelings = 108

In Yoga, 108 Sun Salutations are often practiced to honor change. For example, to bring peace, respect and understanding at a time of tragedy or to

honor the change of seasons.

Tibetans have 108 sacred holy books.

In Jainism, there are believed to be 108 virtues.

108 Steps – Many Hindu and Buddhist temples have 108 steps.

In Japan, at the end of a year, a bell is chimed 108 times in Buddhist temples to finish the old year and welcome the new one.  Each ring represents one of the 108 earthly temptations a person must overcome to achieve nirvana.

Lord Buddha is believed to have given a teaching answering 108 questions which are contained within the Lankavatara Sutra (Buddhist scripture).

In Gnosticism, (an ancient Christian religion), it is believed that an individual has 108 chances, or lifetimes to eliminate ego and transcend the material world.

Atman/Soul – In Hinduism, it is believed that the soul or inner self (Atman), goes through 108 stages of spiritual development.

In Taoism, the Wu style of Tai Chi has 108 postures.

Lord Buddha’s footprint is imprinted with 108 auspicious illustrations.

In Islam, the number 108 refers to God.

In the Bible, the words ‘first born’ is used 108 times. The words ‘in truth’ and ‘to forgive’ are used 108 times in the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible.

Angel Numbers – the number 108 is a message of support and encouragement. A cycle in life might be coming to an end but new opportunities lay ahead.

1 = New beginnings, intuition, insight.

0 = Development of one’s spiritual journey and listening to your intuition.

8 = Manifesting positive abundance, personal power, a desire for peace and a love of humanity.

The Sanskrit Alphabet has 54 letters and each has a masculine and feminine form (Shiva and Shakti) 54 x 2 = 108

Stonehenge, a prehistoric monument in England is 108 feet in diameter.

There is a lot of consider here and taking all of this into account, with a simplistic viewpoint, you could say that the auspicious number 108 connects science with human mind, body and spirit. 

Mathematics and Geometry

108 is a Harshad number (1+0+8=9) / 108 is divisible by 9

366 days in sidereal year; 3x6x6 = 108

1 squared plus 2 squared plus 3 squared equals 108

108° degrees on inner angles of a pentagon

Theology and Culture

108 beads on a mala

108 repetitions of a mantra

108 types of meditation

108 dance forms in Indian traditions

108 time frame in Rosicrucian cycles

108 gopis of Vrindavan in the Gaudiya Vaishnavism

108 defilements in some schools of Buddhism

108 earthly temptations

108 beads on a juzu (prayer beads) worn by Zen priests

108 questions for Buddha in the Lankavatra

108 previous incarnations remembered in modern Gnosticism

108 chances or lifetimes to rid the ego and transcend the materialistic world

108 earthly desires/lies/delusions in Buddhism

108 is maximum number of repetitions in Kriya Yoga

108 Sun Salutations in yoga

108 breaths in a day to reach enlightenment

108 energy lines or nadiis converging to form the heart chakra

108 sacred books in the holy writings of Tibet

108 epistemological doctrines in Hinduism tradition

108 virtues in Jain tradition

108 steps in temples mentioned in the Lankavatara Sutra

108 sins or 108 delusions of the mind in Tibetan Buddhism

108 pressure points in body according to Marma Adi and Ayurveda

In conclusion, we may say that the sacredness of 108 began in ancient times but it is not likely that the origin will be discovered. What we may discover are the hidden reasons for it being regarded a sacred number.

Among the Hindus, vivaha or marriage is considered a sarira samskara, i.e., sacraments sanctifying the body, which every individual has to go through in life. It is a topic that is controversial and widely debated. When you optically canvass elaborate Indian arranged marriages and analyze the involution and effort involved to make it prosperous, you may wonder how and when this practice commenced. Arranged marriages in India originated during the Vedic period of Indian history. The ceremony and the institution of arranged marriages withal took its shape during this time.


Hindu marriage harmonizes two individuals for ultimate eternity, so that they can pursue dharma (Truth), arth (meaning), and kama (worldly desires). It is a union of two individuals as spouses, and is recognized by livable continuity. In Hinduism, marriage is not followed by traditional rituals for consummation. In fact, marriage is considered complete or valid even without consummation because the marriage is between two souls and it is beyond the body. It also joins two families together. Today the culture of marriage among Hindus is such new concept of Love-Arrange Marriage or Arrange-Love Marriage.


The concept of Hindu Marriage goes much deeper than just a man-woman relationship. It has been called as essential Samskara as it imbibes all the humane ethos of Hindu Culture from the birth of human life, endurance through trials & tribulations of married life and destiny of future generation after the death of marriage partners. Its ideals are the fulfillment of dharma, procreation, and enjoyment of sexual pleasure. It exhibits an integral approach to this social institution.


Marriage is considered to be a sacred institution  in India.  It is a ‘sanskara’ or purificatory ceremony obligatory for every Hindu. Marriages, according to Hindu beliefs are made in heaven, and once you are married, the bond is supposed to last for seven lifetimes. It is considered to be a turning point in an individual’s life as he enters the second important phase or ashram of his life – the ‘Garhasthyaashram’. Hindu religious books have enjoined marriage as a duty because an unmarried man cannot perform some of the most important religious ceremonies.


As the Vedic religion evolved into classical orthodox Hinduism (ca. 500BC), the social ideas advanced by Manu gained prominence, and large sections of Indian society moved towards patriarchy and caste-based rules. Manu and others attacked the Gandharva and other similar systems, decrying them as holdouts “from the time of promiscuity” which, at best, were only suitable for small sections of society. Under the system they advocated (sometimes called Manuvad), women were stripped of their traditional independence and placed permanently in male custodianship: first of their fathers in childhood, then of their husbands through married life, and finally of their sons in old age. Women then began to migrate to their husband’s home after getting married.


The Hindu scriptures admit the following eight forms of marriage:

  • Brahma marriage: In this form of marriage the girl, decorated with clothes and ornaments, is given in marriage to a learned and gentle bridegroom. This is the prevalent form of marriage in Hindu society today.
  • Prajapatya marriage: In this form of marriage the daughter is offered to the bride-groom by blessing them with the enjoyment of marital bliss and the fulfillment of dharma.
  • Aarsh marriage: In this form of marriage a Rishi used to accept a girl in marriage after giving a cow or bull and some clothes to the parents of the girl. These articles were not the price of the bride but indicated the resolve of the Rishi to lead a house-hold life. According to P.K.Acharya, the word Aarsh has been derived from the word Rishi.
  • Daiva Marriage: In this form of marriage the girl, decorated with ornaments and clothes, was offered to the person who conducted the function of a Purohit in the yajna.
  • Asura marriage: In this form of marriage the bride-groom gets the bride in exchange for some money or articles given to the family members of the bride. Such a form of marriage was conducted in the case of marriage of Pandu with Madri.
  • Gandharva marriage: This form is marriage is the result of mutual affection and love of the bride and the bride-groom. An example of this type of marriage is the marriage of the King Dushyanata with Shakuntala. In this form of marriage, the ceremonies can be performed after a sexual relationship between the bride and the bride-groom. In Taittariya Samhita it has been pointed out that this type of marriage has been so named because of its prevalence among the Gandharvas.
  • Rakshas marriage: This type of marriage was prevalent in the age when women were considered to be the prize of the war. In this type of marriage, the bride-groom takes away the bride from her house forcibly after killing and injuring her relatives.
  • Paisach marriage: This type of marriage has been called to be most degenerate. In this type, a man enters into a sexual relationship with a sleeping, drunk or unconscious woman. Such acts were regularised after the performance of a marriage ceremony which took place after the physical relationship between the man and woman.


Historically the Vedic marriage was but one of the few different types of Hindu marriage customs. Love marriage was also seen in historical Hindu literature and has been variously described by many names, such as Gandharva vivaha. In certain poor vaishnav communities there is still a custom called kanthi-badal which is an exchange of bead-garlands as a very simplified form of ritual in solitude in front of an idol of Krishna, considered a form of acceptable love marriage.

Elopement has also been described in old Hindu literature. Lord Krishna himself eloped with Rukmini on a horse chariot. It is written that Rukmini’s father was going to marry her to Shishupal, against her wishes. Rukimini sent a letter to Krishna informing of a place and time to pick her up.


The married Hindu women in different parts of India follow different customs. Mostly sindoor, mangalsutra and bangles are considered as signs of a married woman. In some places, in especially Eastern India, instead of mangalsutra they put only vermilion on the hair parting, wear a pair of conch bangles (shankha), red bangles (pala) and an iron bangle on the left hand (loha) while their husband is alive. In southern India, a married woman may wear a necklace with a distinctive pendant called a thali and silver toe-rings. Both are put on her by the husband during the wedding ceremony.


The Manu Samhita that was written in around 200 BC, is known to have laid down the marital laws, which is followed even today. Manu, one of the most influential interpreters of these scriptures, documented the Manu Samhita. Traditionally accepted as one of the supplementary arms of the Vedas, The Laws of Manu or Manava Dharma Shastra is one of the standard books in the Hindu canon, presenting the norms of domestic, social, and religious life in India.


These texts mention the four main aims of Hindu life: Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. Dharma represented the harmony between “temporal interests and spiritual freedom”. Artha referred to the “acquisitive instinct, and signified man’s enjoyment of wealth”. Kama represented the instinctive and was connected with satisfying the emotional, sexual, and aesthetic urges of man. Moksha represented the end of life and the realization of an inner spirituality in man.


It further mentions that these four aims of life were to be accomplished by conducting life in four stages which were – “bhramacharya, grihastha, vanaspratha, and samnyasa”.The second stage grihastha dealt with marriage and included the goals of dharma, progeny, and sex. The Vedas and the Smritis thus gave an authentic written foundation to the institution of marriage. As Vedas and the Manu Samhita is the earliest available document it can be ascertained that marriage started with this era.


Hindu marriage ceremony is essentially a Vedic yajna or fire-sacrifice, in which the Aryan deities are invoked in the archaic Indo-Aryan style. The primary witness of a Hindu marriage is the fire-deity or Agni, and by law and tradition, no Hindu marriage is deemed complete unless in the presence of the Sacred Fire, and seven circumambulations have been made around it by the bride and the groom together. The Vedas set out in detail the ritualistic importance of the nuptial ceremony. The seven vows of a Hindu marriage are also mentioned in the Vedic texts.


Due to the influence of Western culture and English education, the Hindu marriage system has undergone considerable changes. Some of the important ones are:

Marriage is not held as compulsory: In the Hindu society formerly marriage was considered to be absolutely compulsory for both males and females. According to Hindu scriptures, a person who does not beget a son through marriage cannot attain heaven. No man could perform ‘yajna’ without a wife. Marriage, therefore, was necessary even for religious purposes. But, due to the influence of Western culture, many males and females do not consider marriage to be necessary these days. Due to economic difficulties also some persons do not enter into matrimony. The modern educated Hindu girl is not ready to accept the slavery of males. The educated men and women do not believe in the ancient religious values and therefore do not consider marriage to be necessary.

Breaking of the taboos of Sagotra and Sapravar marriage: Ancient Hindu tradition forbids the marriage of persons belonging to the same Gotra and Pravar. This very much restricts the field of choice of mate. Therefore, at present, the educated persons are gradually violating the restriction. It has been also rejected by law.

The opposition of Child Marriages: In medieval India, the custom of child marriage was very much in vogue. After the passing of the Sarada Act, child marriages have become illegal. Another factor leading to the restriction of child marriage in Hindu society is a tremendous increase in women’s education. The boys do not marry early because of late settlement in career.

Permission of Inter-caste Marriage: Formerly, inter-caste marriage was considered to be wrong in the Hindu society. It has now been legally permitted. With the increase of co-education, women’s education and the democratic ideal of equality and liberty, inter-caste marriages are now considered to be signs of forwardness.

Permission of Widow Remarriage: due to the untiring efforts of the social reformers and educated person widow remarriage is no more considered to be wrong in Hindu society. Consequently, its incidence is now on the decrease.

Prohibition of Polygamy: Formerly, a man was allowed to marry several women in order to get a son. With the increase of women’s education, the ladies are demanding equal rights in marriage. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 has declared polygamy to be illegal. No one can marry a second time, while the former spouse is alive.

Provision for Divorce: The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 has introduced a significant change in the institution of Hindu marriage by permitting divorce under certain specific circumstances.


Mutually fixed/ consented marriages are basically of three types:

  •  Between same caste– intra-caste & intra-faith marriages
  •  Inter-caste marriages
  • Inter-faith marriages

Love marriage is a misnomer because love in matrimonial context is sexual interplay, which includes dating, courtship, live-in arrangement, infatuation, and even sexual contact/ violence. Any of these may or may not fructify into a solemnized legal marriage. More often than not, this results in a void, voidable or bigamous marriage than a legal marriage. From a legal point of view, these relationships or marriages form a great chunk of matrimonial disputes and matrimonial violence. In love marriages or self-seek matrimonial alliances, sexual relationships or even courtship before marriage are quite common. Both of these aspects have grave legal implications. Therefore, the utmost secrecy by both partners sometimes lands them into the arena of criminal offenses.


More and more couples are going in for live-in relationships, not only celebrities but even middle-class couples are choosing to live together for various personal or social reasons. Some of these reasons are: society and families no longer frown upon ‘live-in relationship’ as much as before and couples who do not wish to make lifelong commitments prefer to live together before getting married. Others say that they need to know each other better before they tie the nuptial knot. Yet others live together due to circumstances such as work requirements or for saving money by keeping one house rather than two. Lastly, young men and women live together because they no longer believe in the traditional sanctity of marriage.


Hindus believe in astrology. The prospective couple’s horoscopes have to be analyzed and “suitably matched” for the marriage to take place. Hindu astrology, a system that originated in ancient India, was documented by sages in the Vedic scriptures. The origin of arranged marriages in India and its dignified past comes from the amazing specificity of Vedic astrology. So, the evolution of arranged marriages has been a gradual process with its roots in the Vedic period. The period prior to it, i.e., the Indus Valley Civilization has no written scriptures or scripts relating to this period. Hence, there is an extensive need for deciphering the script of the Indus civilization to have an idea about the society and marriage customs of this period to open avenues for further research.


Vedic path refers to the three stages of a person:

The initial stage, which is Bhramacharya: the study and learning of Vedas and Gayathri Upasana, and worship of Agni through oblations twice a day.

The next stage is the Grihastashrama (getting into marital life) and offering oblations to Agni by performing Agni Upasana, Yagas, etc. along with the life partner which are meant for the evolution of one’s self in the spiritual realm.

The final stage is offering one’s body after death to the Agni that was worshipped.

It should be understood that vanaspratha is the continuation of grihastha stage after discharging the duties and retiring along with the wife and continuing Agni Upasana, penance, and nitya karmas.

To lead a life as prescribed by the Vedas, here is the system to be followed by one and all:

  1. Initiation into Gayathri Upasana
  2. Study of the Vedas or understanding the messages given in them.
  3. Agni Upasana as part of Gayathri Upasana and Vedic study (BRAHMACHARYA).
  4. Getting into married life and continuing Agni Worship as a couple – Grihastha Dharma.
  5. Offering one’s body in the fire worshipped by the couple (The concept behind the ritual followed for cremation in the present day)


As saying goes:

“Jisne bhi shadi ke laddu khaye vo bhi pachtaye jisne nahin khaye vo bhi pachtaye”.

Marriage besides holy matrimony is an everlasting union between two people (especially those to whom you do not know earlier). Marriage can be blessed or cursed. Marriage and wedding is not the same. Marriage is the uniting of two people to become one both spiritually and physically. It is commitment between two different natured persons for love and honour of each other till death.

Wedding is a day event, it’s the joining of two people to become one, but after that day it is not going to happen again. It is something happened in a life time.

Marriage is to be appreciated and respected. Most people marry by appearance; he must be tall, dark, and handsome, have beards, have pink lipsete, must have good looks, good figure, and nice set of teeth, have sexy voice, earner, family values, education, background etc.

I am not saying you shouldn’t know what you want, appearance matters, but, character matters most. I would say appearance brings a man but character or manners keeps him cause when you have a reason you love someone (cause of her cute eyes) one day you might look and it’s not there and the love decrease. No matter what, good manner matters.

The success of your marriage depends on the choice you have made with regard to your life partner.

Let your partner or spouse be the one you comfortable with, one you can turn to for help or advice. One that stand by you or safe you from danger.

One who is there to help, support, lift or assist you?

One who counsels you, who encourage and care for you

One that covers your nakedness, flaws, shame, who make you and not mar you

One who brings out the best in you no matter what, makes you smile, joyful even in enduring situations


Marriage marks a great beginning

Marriage marks the beginning of the family. It is a life-long commitment that widens your horizons and the purpose of existence on this earth. It gives you an opportunity to be selfless as you will have to now take care of your spouse and children. Marriage is not just a physical union. It is also a spiritual as well as emotional bond. Hence, you will find a kind of fulfillment when you get married.

Promotes oneness

When two people get married, they become one. Marriage is a superior bond than nothing else on the earth. It brings you your life’s partner and a teammate to move together in comradeship facing the challenges, excitements, disappointments, surprises and uncertainties of life. Finally now you have got someone to share your life.

Brings in a higher purpose to your life

Marriage opens up the gates to realizing a higher purpose to your life. You are now enjoined into a life that is tuned to realizing the objectives of each of the family members with you. You work for a larger goal and receive a greater satisfaction. The life seems to be more meaningful after marriage.

The joy of parenting

Parenting is a challenging, exciting and a joyful thing like nothing else. When you produce a child or adopt one, you receive the biggest blessing on the earth you can hope for. Children growing without a father or mother are most likely to be ill-equipped to face the world in the right way. When you have got kids in the family, you have got an opportunity to help a soul understand the world and learn how to live happily and successfully.


Marriage is a powerful creator and sustainer of human and social capital for adults as well as children, about as important as education when it comes to promoting the health, wealth, and well-being of adults and communities. It is not good for man to be alone— or woman.


IT’S SAFER. Marriage lowers the risk that both men and women will become victims of violence, including domestic violence. Two-thirds of acts of violence against women committed by intimate partners were not committed by husbands, but by boyfriends (whether live-in or not) or former husbands or boyfriends.

IT CAN SAVE YOUR LIFE. Married people live longer and healthier lives. The power of marriage is particularly evident in late middle age. Nine out of ten married guys who are alive at 48 will make it to age 65, compared with just six in ten comparable single guys (controlling for race, education, and income). For women, the protective benefits of marriage are also powerful, though not quite as large. Nine out of ten wives alive at age 48 will live to be senior citizens, compared with just eight out of ten divorced and single women.

IT CAN SAVE YOUR KID’S LIFE. Children lead healthier, longer lives, if, parents get and stay married.

YOU WILL EARN MORE MONEY. Men today tend to think of marriage as a consumption item—a financial burden. But a broad and deep body of scientific literature suggests that for men especially, marriage is a productive institution—as important as education in boosting a man’s earnings.

YOU’LL GET MUCH RICHER. Married people not only make more money, they manage money better and build more wealth together than either would alone.

YOU’LL TAME HIS CHEATIN’ HEART (HERS, TOO). Marriage increases sexual fidelity. Cohabiting men are four times more likely to cheat than husbands, and cohabiting women are eight times more likely to cheat than wives. Marriage is also the only realistic promise of permanence in a romantic relationship.

YOU WON’T GO BONKERS. Marriage is good for your mental health. Married men and women are less depressed, less anxious, and less psychologically distressed than single, divorced, or widowed Americans. By contrast, getting divorced lowers men’s and women’s mental health, increasing depression and hostility, and lowering one’s self-esteem and sense of personal mastery and purpose in life.

IT WILL MAKE YOU HAPPY. For most people, the joys of the single life and of divorce are overrated. Overall, 40 percent of married people, compared with about a quarter of singles or cohabiters, say they are “very happy” with life in general. Married people are also only about half as likely as singles or cohabiters to say they are unhappy with their lives.

How happy are the divorced? If people divorce in order to be happy, as we are often told, the majority should demand their money back. Just 18 percent of divorced adults say they are “very happy,” and divorced adults are twice as likely as married folk to say they are “not too happy” with life in general. Only a minority of divorcing adults go on to make marriages that are happier than the one they left. “Divorce or be miserable,” certain cultural voices tell us, but, truth be told, “Divorce and be miserable” is at least as likely an outcome.

YOUR KIDS WILL LOVE YOU MORE. Divorce weakens the bonds between parents and children over the long run. Adult children of divorce describe relationships with both their mother and their father less positively, on average, and they are about 40 percent less likely than adults from intact marriages to say they see either parent at least several times a week.

YOU’LL HAVE BETTER SEX, MORE OFTEN. Despite the lurid Sex in the City marketing that promises singles erotic joys untold, both husbands and wives are more likely to report that they have an extremely satisfying sex life than are singles or cohabiters. (Divorced women were the least likely to have a sex life they found extremely satisfying emotionally.) For one thing, married people are more likely to have a sex life. Single men are 20 times more likely and single women ten times more likely, not to have had sex even once in the past year than the married. (Almost a quarter of single guys and 30 percent of single women lead sexless lives.)


Most people aren’t in a hurry to get married anymore

According to few statistics, back in the early 1980s, the median age for marriage was 25 for men and 22 for women. But in 2011, the median ages for first marriages hit all-time highs of 29 for men and 27 for women. The report credits this change to, among other things, the fact that couples no longer feel the need to be married to become parents and the “competition from other lifestyles,” like living alone or living with partners. So, there’s no need to stress about not getting married — everyone else is staying single too.

Many people feel there aren’t many advantages to being married

In 2010 few survey states that, by and large, single people do not feel married people have many advantages in terms of a “fulfilling sex life, being financially secure, finding happiness and having social status.”

For men, being married could be connected to being overweight

Married men were 25 percent more likely to be overweight than men who were single or in a committed relationship. And according to the study, about 60 percent of married men were overweight compared to about 40 percent of married women.

Marriage can present a slew of financial problems

Laws require those in a marriage to be responsible for their spouse’s debt, and for the elderly, that could mean a variety of expensive medical bills.

Marriage can seem like an outdated institution, and some people just don’t want to fit into that mold

Marriage is a conservative institution that organizes child-rearing and defines commitment, relationship and love.

Getting married can put your friendships at risk

While this probably applies more to folks with mostly single friends, many people sense strains in their friendships after they get married. People tend to lose at least one close friend after getting married, as a husband or wife fills that role. When someone spends every waking hour with their spouse that can lead to neglecting the other people in their life. Which brings us to our next point?

Marriage can lead to the risky habit of relying on one individual for every emotional need

Many married couples make the mistake of turning their spouse into a “Sex and Everything Else Partner.” They look to them for all sources of contentment, like “companionship, intimacy, caring, friendship, advice, the sharing of the tasks and finances of household and family, and just about everything else.” This creates an unrealistic “cultural fantasy” that ultimately results in disappointment and unhappiness.

These days, a happy marriage requires a serious commitment of time and energy that can be hard to maintain

The fact that good marriages require more time and effort than ever is further validated by the differing divorce rates between wealthy couples and their less affluent counterparts. Studies show that lower-income couples get divorced more, and part of the blame lays in those couples’ lack of resources, time and otherwise.

And, as dim as it sounds, plenty of marriages in this country end up in a divorce anyway

Middle-class participants said despite being excited about marriage, they worried about “the social, legal, emotional and economic consequences of divorce.” It seems that the younger you get married, the more likely you are to get a divorce.

It’s called a civil union or a domestic partnership

If you want to form a meaningful (and official) bond with your significant other, but you just don’t like the idea and practice of marriage, you always have the option of entering a civil union or a domestic partnership.


Don’t get married because you are lonely.

Many people find themselves living alone, and eventually get tired of the life of the single person, the bars, the parties, and all the other activities singles indulge in. Living alone is a wonderful time to become a whole person, to get to know yourself and what you like, don’t like, and learn to feel comfortable in your own skin, and satisfied with your own company.

Don’t marry someone to get your friends’ and family’s approval

It is always a nice feeling to make others ecstatic, and we strive to gain the approbation of our friends and family, which isn’t a lamentable thing. Not unless you are with someone you feel no vigorous emotions for, only because your family and friends cerebrate they are such a great guy or gal. You can bask in their approbation only so long, and conclusively, you will require to do Something for yourself, something that makes you blissful inside. Your family And friends should give you their love, support, and approbation because they dote and accept you for who you are, not who you are with.

In the present day society where the people believe in marrying their daughters or even the girls would relish to get married in the society she belongs to but there are many drawbacks, as is most of the cases the compatibility and societal quandaries are there like the case presently in the Bollywood, the people are addicted to falsehood and get into erroneous hands.

Dowry is one of the imprecations of our society and in most of the cases because of authoritative ordinance of dowry, either the girl’s parents or the girl itself trepidations of getting married. There are many other reasons like some people do not believe in getting married. They feel like they do not require the partner’s love or it will not be proved, as thought of and additionally trepidation of being slave in the in-laws house. Though the trust is the main action in marriage, but some people feel that they will not get the trust. Sometimes, the girls do not believe that marriage is an alternative for a good life and dissents with the old cultured society and wants an independent life without any if and buts in their day to day life. Even in some cases, tag of cognomen effect the independence of the girl specially those who want liberation and optate to do whatever they like especially when they are not sure about the person with whom she is going to be wedlock. In marriage, the bride is a centre of attention, which sometimes she does not relish.

As is already been discussed, there are don’ts additionally, which cause lot of stress due to incomplete and incompatibility of each other, consequently, it is one of the other cause not having been married. In some of the cases in their personal or friend circle, they have felt the deplorable feelings for marriage. They are trepidations of having getting the same in her marriage.

It is felt that marriage integrates value to life, but sometimes it is not homogeneous to so. When the girl have optically discerned, their parents or their kenned fighting in or out and one or the other couple not being independent, she is frightened that she do not optate to get married. Few would relish to break the overruled tradition of the man inundating the woman. Since, after marriage the time is devoted towards the other person, who may be boy or girl do not optate to spent or share.

Few people would relish to live a solitary life, so they are trepidations of getting married. Sometimes, due to different maturity levels having different cerebration process, not of compromising nature, not relishing the family or traditions or not believing in desideratum of the other person, people do not get married. In many cases due to job requisites, business or professional exigencies the couples have either to live discretely or does not devote enough time for each other, which ravages the very purport of togetherness, love and affection in marriage and becomes curse for each other.

Despite this, there are reasons for getting married. One of the reasons is that there will be togetherness and there would be a companion with whom one can apportion journey of life. If one feels, marriage is not a compulsion, but a bond for whole life with comity, as a motive and a conscious effort to look into each other’s good or deplorable then it is better to get married.

Another reason for getting married is love and intimacy. Love is the circadian decision to give, accommodate and communicate in the venerable manner and the patience from both the Partners is must, which needs a veracity & independent relationship. The intimacy describes proximity & feeling of warmth. But, if, it is missing then the life becomes hell. Marriage is for one’s support and magnification. Once there is struggle, challenges & differences, the inter personal cognations between the married couple reinforce each other. It is withal one of the biological needs.

The parenthood is additionally one of the reasons for having a marriage. However, the most stable and secure environment is obligatory for magnification of the kids in the mundane family. In Indian society, married men or women get more reverence as well as in their respective families. Despite number of laws having been transmuted, live-in relationship or divorce is still a taboo.

Two adults have the right to live together even if they have not procured marriageable age, the Supreme Court has verbally expressed. In its Judgment, Supreme Court has verbally expressed that if a man and a woman living together without marriage, and then they cannot be construes under offense. Many couples in cities are living together and in most of the cases, their parents are nescient of that. Live-in relationships might be or not be better than marriage, but it gives you a clear perspective about your compatibility with your partner and hence of spending a life with him/her.


Sati was prevalent in Archaic India. The British prosper in bringing XVII Aversion of Sati Act which declares sati illicit and penalizable by courts. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and E.V. Ramasamy Periyar paved the way for gregarious reform. In India, the first kineticism of marital rights of women centered on three major quandaries, child marriage, enforced widowhood, and property rights of women. The Dowry Proscription Act was enacted to curb the dowry menace. It applies to all people, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Jews. The law was found to fail to stall this malevolence. Dowry Death was later enacted. Where the death of the woman occurred in unnatural circumstances within 7 years of marriage and it is shown that she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or his relatives in connection with any ordinant dictation for dowry, it would be postulated to be a dowry death, deemed to be caused by the husband or his relatives.  

As society has advanced the Hindu Marriage has gone through sundry changes. Even values annexed to it have transmuted tremendously.  Individuals now are culling their mates according to their own requisites. Many are not getting into matrimonial coalitions due to some quandaries.

The marriage in India are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act and Special Marriage Act which regulates the Marriage. The provision of divorce has withal availed many people to emerge from their marriage. Thus, as believed Hindu marriage is no more indissoluble.

Please understand marriage is a personal cull not a matter of opinion for the society, do not hesitate to do something or take any action that would avail you live a better life, despite the fact that there are certain Religious acts which can only be performed by a married couple. Moreover, we have Sanatan culture, which does not sanction to live without marriage and have a live-in relationship like in Europe.

The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 contains provisions of delayed payment to Micro and Small Enterprise (MSEs). (Section 15- 24). State Governments to establish Micro and Small Enterprise Facilitation Council (MSEFC) for settlement of disputes on getting references/filing on Delayed payments. (Section 20 and 21).

It is important to note that MSME Act is applicable only to the manufacturers and the Service Providers and the classification of enterprises is as follows:

An enterprise shall be classified as a micro, small or medium enterprise on the basis of the following criteria, namely:–

(i) a micro enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed one crore rupees and turnover does not exceed five crore rupees;

(ii) a small enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed ten crore rupees and turnover does not exceed fifty crore rupees; and

(iii) a medium enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed fifty crore rupees and turnover does not exceed two hundred and fifty crore rupees.

For being a MSME Unit, both the investment and turnover criteria has to be met. Even, if, one exceeds it will be covered under the other category. Thus, the Traders are not covered in this Act, which are the major part in running Industrial Units i.e. the manufacturers.

As per MSME Act, there has to be a Buyer and Seller, which has been appropriately defined in the Act. The ‘buyer’ means whoever buys any goods or receives any services from a supplier for consideration and the ‘supplier’ means a micro or small enterprise, who is having valid Udyog Adhaar through Udhyam Portal.

The Act has laid down the provisions for recovery of delayed/default payments for MSMEs. It provides that where there is delay in payment beyond 45 days from the day of acceptance or day of deemed acceptance of the goods or services, the recoveries of the principal with an interest with monthly rests to the suppliers three times of the Bank rates notified by RBI are to be paid, even if, the practice of agreed terms are different. Meaning thereby that  if there are agreed terms of payments of over 45 days, even then if, the payment is not received within 45 days then the buyer has to pay the principle alongwith the interest.

The MSME through Samadhaan can get the payment, if, there is default in payment beyond 45 days irrespective of dispute, if any. The dispute or the delayed payment of dues is to be redressed by MSME Facilitation Council to whom reference has to be made, who will conduct the conciliation proceedings or if, conciliation is not successful then through arbitration proceedings under the provisions of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 as amended from time to time. Mostly, conciliation is successful between the parties through the Council.

It is important to note that if, the conciliation is not successful then it shall be automatically terminated and the Council can refer the matter for arbitration, which has to be decided within 90 days. Generally, it is seen that the dispute or delayed payment is settled through mediation. In case of unsuccessful mediation, arbitration is there, which is a mode for recovery and is an alternative to civil / criminal litigation.

It is fast track legal dispute redressal system, as referred the matter is to be resolved within 90 days by the Facilitation Council. Composition of Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council is as follows:

  • The Micro and Small Enterprise Facilitation Council shall consist of not less than three, but not more than five members to be appointed from amongst the following categories, namely:
  • Director of Industries, by whatever name called, or any other officer not below the rank of such Director, in the Department of the State Government having administrative control of the small scale industries or, as the case may be, micro, small and medium enterprises; and
  • One or more office-bearers or representatives of associations of micro or small industry or enterprises in the State; and
  • One or more representatives of banks and financial institutions lending to micro or small enterprises; or
  • One or more persons having special knowledge in the field of industry, finance, law, trade or commerce.
  • The person appointed under clause (i) of sub-section (1) shall be the Chairperson of the Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council.
  • The composition of the Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council, the manner of filling vacancies of its members and the procedure to be followed in the discharge of their functions by the members shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.

Thus, the substantial powers for redressal of disputes have been delegated to the State Government, without considering the plight of the industry at the Central level.

The procedure is as per the Arbitration Act. The Appeal has to be filed with prior payment of 75{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} of the award to be paid to the Seller.

It is informed that the FAQ has been prepared by the office of DC(MSME), Ministry of MSME after consulting the legal persons in the field and information available.

MSME Samadhaan is a Portal created by Office of DC(MSME), Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) where Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) having Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum (UAM) can file their applications online regarding delayed payments. MSME SAMADHAAN online portal is developed by Ministry of MSME only to facilitate MSEs filing of their applications regarding delayed payments online. The application once filed is forwarded automatically online to the concerned Micro and Small Enterprise Facilitation Council (MSEFC) established by the State/UTs as per the provisions of MSMED-Act 2006. Action on the applications regarding delayed payment is taken by the concerned MSEFC only. Only the MSEFCs have been empowered as per MSMED Act, 2006 for taking decisions regarding its reference made with them.

Ministry of MSME does not intervene in the matters of MSEFC being individual functioning. MSME Samadhaan Portal has been created only to facilitate online applications regarding delayed payments. Physical applications can also be filed at the concerned MSEFC and the applications are converted into case by the concerned MSEFC. Thus, after submission, the application is automatically forwarded online to concerned MSEFC. Therefore, concerned MSEFC is to be contacted after filing the application online on MSME Samadhaan Portal. The contact address of concerned MSEFC is mentioned on the acknowledgement sent on the registered email of the applicant. The work order is compulsory for filing the application. However, in case purchase order is oral an affidavit to that effect is to be submitted. Multiple invoices can be combined into single PDF and can be uploaded. The affidavit of oral purchase order is to be included in single PDF. The OTP is sent to the registered email ID in Udyog Aadhaar.

Categories admitted in MSEFCs are in respect of goods manufacturing and service rendering sector for which UAM has been obtained. These categories cannot be challenged by the respondent/buyer. Application under Section 19 of the MSMED Act, 2006 cannot be entertained by any court. Deposited amount can be released to the applicant as per the directions to the Court. It is the act of court for which applicant cannot suffer. The silence of buyer is confirmation of liabilities upon him.

The 90 days period of settlement of claim begins only after notice of Arbitration under Section 18(3) of MSMED Act, 2006. The council should deliver a conciliation award after the successful conciliation. It is called award by mutual consent. It is valid award and buyer cannot make appeal against it. Council Members are judges having equal power. They should be well-versed in factual aspect of the case before them. Under administrative exigencies, the Chairperson can delegate the presiding power to another subordinate official or another member, but, the meeting/proceeding can take place, if Coram of three members is complete, members can elect the Chairperson and take further proceedings.

It is necessary to mention why Chairperson could not attend the hearing. There is provision for a Member Secretary as council Member and he can act as a Member in case of any exigency. Member Secretary is acting as Registrar of MSEFC and judge also when he sits in Council. A legal notice by the supplier to buyer is not necessary before filling the case in the Council. But, a claim can be filed for interest alone where the claimant has received principal of dues already. Only the claim under Section 6 of Interest on Delayed Payments to Small Scale and Ancillary Industrial Undertaking Act, 1993 if pending, before IFC or Civil Courts, they can be considered. However, to approach the MSEFC, liberty of court is to be obtained on earlier claims.

If there is a false claim from the applicant, a penalty cannot be imposed by Council, but the petition is to be rejected summarily. A grace period given for MSEs registration to the supplier can be considered while entertaining the claim. It is not hurdle in the matter of claim. The receivables from buyer such as advance deposit, EMD, Statutory deposits as other than supply of goods and services can be claimed in the claim before the Council, which includes in the total due amount. Breach of contract is not within scope of MSMED Act, 2006. Rejection of goods should be genuine within 15 days of the receipt of goods and its immediate communication to supplier. The penal interest is calculated on a monthly compounding basis.

The jurisdiction of State Council can be extended to a district where no council is available. The power of dissent to a member of Council in the proceedings is available and recording in minutes is to be done, but majority decision prevails. If the conciliation conducted by Council fails, Council can take up Arbitration automatically, but diverse view is taken by Bombay High Court. Hon’ble Supreme Court says that conciliation and arbitration are the legally vested functions of the Council. It is not necessary for Full Council to conduct conciliation. It is sufficient for Chairman or any member alone to participate in conciliation. It is not commercial conciliation or analysis of various contractual liabilities. It is simple arbitration to get compliance of Section 16 of MSMED Act, 2006.

State Government under Section 20 of MSMED Act, 2006 is empowered to constitute additional Councils. The process/procedure of execution of Award and the role of Council in assisting the Claimant is under Section 36 of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 as amended from time to time. The Council has no power to review, revise or amend its own award. After final award it becomes “Funcous officio” means having no relation to award. A Government Department as a buyer can be proceeded against in the Council.

Whenever a notice is received by Council from an Appellate Court to represent as witness, the Council is not required to appear in any court as it is only a formal party. There is no limit of pecuniary jurisdiction for State and District Council. The date of receipt of the copy of award is only effective date. If amount is claimed in the Civil Court, then it cannot be claimed before MSEFC. If an Appellate Court reverts back the case to the Council, it is to be decided as per instructions of the Higher Court. In case of IBC proceedings, the Award by MSEFC is to be communicated to Interim Resolution Professional (IRP) and then to NCLT as per procedural law. An Award holder from MSEFC can gain any preference as creditor in Insolvency proceedings. The Award Holder is considered as a secured creditor. Notices should be served to a dissolved buyer firm and partners even if subsequently reconstituted/merged with a new entity in partnership liabilities are unlimited. It is a lengthy procedure as first claim is to be kept alive. Council cannot deal with criminal offences related to subject matter of claim.

The request of any party to have representation by an attorney or any other authorized agent can be allowed by Council by way of irrevocable power of Attorney. His commitment must be binding upon buyer. Resolution is required for this. No limitation is applicable in Arbitration by Council, as law of limitation is not applicable. But, delay and latches principle is applicable. Supplier sleeping over his legal rights cannot get assistance of Council. It is only summery proceedings and on the basis of affidavits of both the parties, the dispute can be resolved.

The MSMED Act, 2006 is set in motion after supplies of goods and services made by supplier and buyer accepts them but does not pay the bill within 45 days. Petition with Purchase Order, Bills, delivery challans of goods and services and demand letter etc. are to be kept if the matter is challenged in any higher court. In any other case, where the amount is already realized by the supplier, it is at the discretion of the MSEFC. Notices can be served by e-mail/SMS/Whattsapp because Email is legal document and even Whattsapp. The claim should be submitted in hard copy because it is necessary as submission is required duly signed and verified.

The notice of Council is to be published in daily Newspaper of the area where the Respondent is located, with the orders of Council after 3 notices are issued. It is at the discretion of the MSEFC Council and it can exercise its own diligence by giving opportunity to the applicant since he has to prove his claim before council. When the supplier is a micro or small enterprises and agreement is made between Micro/ Small Enterprises in India. Goods are purchased/taken by foreign buyer and he returns to his country. Payment terms are not honored in these circumstances, matter can be filed before the Council. After following due procedure of law, the Council can issue award and same could be sent to both Consulates i.e. Foreign buyers Consulate in that country. It can be enforced.

A private Arbitration clause in sale contract prevents admission of claim for Arbitration by Council. The proceedings can be conducted in local language, but with English also so that Higher Court should understand later on. Claim preparation is the responsibility of the claimant. It is advisable to get certified from C.A. Deceased buyer is liable through his legal heirs, but dissolved company is always under some authority and claim is maintainable.

A Company through its M.D. with resolution of Board of Directors and Partnership firms through its Managing Partner/s. It is absolutely necessary to have purchase/work order as evidence. A Council cannot allow secondary and corroborated evidence. Acknowledgement on invoice, delivery challans or part payment, email etc. all are accepted. Members of Council are not liable for prosecution, if inadvertently an erroneous judgment is delivered by the Council. On the contrary they are expected to act without fear and favour.

Chairman has no veto power in judging a case. No GM, DIC is ex-officio member in Council and any new official in his official position can take over as Chairman. An Award should be with seal of the Council. Original is to be retained by the MSEFC and only certified copies to be delivered. Award should bear round seal on every page. The consent of absentee members for Award can be obtained by circulation to fulfil quorum requirement. The Coram of three Members physically is must.

It looks on the paper a fast track legal disputes redressal system, as the recoveries are very fast and as the award has to be given within 90 days of the reference made is a decree in itself. But, it is seen that this is not actual state of affairs for MSME Act, as generally as we have seen that when human intervention is there, there is always delayed decisions despite the fact that there is Champions Portal, which means Creation and Harmonious Application of Modern Processes for Increasing the Output and National Strength.

The single window system for the MSMEs 

It has been felt necessary to put up and promote a unified, empowered, robust, bundled and technology driven platform for helping and promoting the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of the country. As the name suggests it will aim at Creation and Harmonious Application of Modern Processes for Increasing the Output and National Strength. Accordingly, the name of the system is CHAMPIONS. This is basically for making the smaller units big by helping and handholding, in particular, by solving their problems and grievances

Three basic objectives of the CHAMPIONS: 

  1. To help the MSMEs in this difficult situation in terms of finance, raw materials, labour, permissions, etc.
  2. To help the MSMEs capture new opportunities in manufacturing and services sectors.
  3. To identify the sparks i.e. the bright MSMEs who can withstand at present and become national and international champions.

As the composition & decision is to be taken by Micro & Small Enterprise Facilitation Council and is to be created and decided by State Government., the Act does not provide the provisions within what time the State Government has to constitute the Facilitation Council or to hold the meetings to decide the issue.

The experience says either there is delay in constitution of Facilitation Council and even when the said Council has been constituted, no meetings are held for disposal of application reference made under the Act for getting default payment recoveries. The Government must consider this aspect seriously and the Act is to be amended in such a way that minimum human intervention is there and there is maximum period to be allowed for Facilitation Council to get the award from date of reference including creation of the Facilitation Council, holding meetings, issuance of Notices, adjournment of hearings and holding of conciliation and arbitration proceedings, as maximum period to decide all legal issues of 300 days from the date of acceptance of application by adjudication authority is under IBC.

Therefore, under this Act also, such provisions has to be laid down otherwise on one or the other ground, the buyer tries to get the matter delayed in Facilitation Council and the purpose of laying the said provisions is forfeited.

The government’s move to change the definition of the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to assist companies in dealing with the COVID-19 aftermath, has brought about a surprising and welcome change. India is now a country of small businesses with over 99 percent of companies falling under this category. The introduction of the twin factors of investment and turnover over the earlier definition based only on investment on plant and machinery has brought about this change.

The earlier definition based on investment in machinery and equipment was to get the main benefit of excise duty relief apart from other government benefits. Excise duty has been done away with the introduction of GST.

An enterprise shall be classified as a micro, small or medium enterprise on the basis of the following criteria, namely: —

(i) a micro enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed one crore rupees and turnover does not exceed five crore rupees;

(ii) a small enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed ten crore rupees and turnover does not exceed fifty crore rupees; and

(iii) a medium enterprise, where the investment in plant and machinery or equipment does not exceed fifty crore rupees and turnover does not exceed two hundred and fifty crore rupees.

Government has organised a full system of Facilitation for Registration Process:

  • An enterprise for the purpose of this process will be known as Udyam and its Registration Process will be known as ‘Udyam Registration’
  • A permanent registration number will be given after registration.
  • After completion of the process of registration, a certificate will be issued online.
  • This certificate will have a dynamic QR Code from which the web page on the Portal and details about the enterprise can be accessed.
  • There will be no need for renewal of Registration.
  • The single window systems at Champions Control Rooms and at DICs will help you in the process.
  • Registration Process is totally free. No Costs or Fees are to be paid to anyone.

MSME Registration is free, paperless and based on self- declaration

  • MSME registration process is fully online, paperless and based on self-declaration.
  • No documents or proof are required to be uploaded for registering an MSME.
  • Only Adhaar Number will be enough for registration.
  • PAN & GST linked details on investment and turnover of enterprises will be taken automatically from Government data bases.
  • The online system will be fully integrated with Income Tax and GSTIN systems.
  • Having PAN & GST number is mandatory from 01.04.2021.
  • Those who have EM-II or UAM registration or any other registration issued by any authority under the Ministry of MSME, will have to re-register themselves.
  • No enterprise shall file more than one Udyam Registration. However, any number of activities including manufacturing or service or both may be specified or added in one Registration.

Register a Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise

  • Any person who intends to establish a micro, small or medium enterprise may file Udyam Registration online in the Udyam Registration portal, based on self-declaration with no requirement to upload documents, papers, certificates or proof.
  • On registration, an enterprise (referred to as “Udyam” in the Udyam Registration portal) will be assigned a permanent identity number to be known as “‘Udyam Registration Number”.
  • An e-certificate, namely, “Udyam Registration Certificate” shall be issued on completion of the registration process.


  • The form for registration shall be as provided in the Udyam Registration portal.
  • Aadhaar number shall be required for Udyam Registration.
  • The Aadhaar number shall be of the proprietor in the case of a proprietorship firm, of the managing partner in the case of a partnership firm and of a karta in the case of a Hindu Undivided Family (HUF).
  • In case of a Company or a Limited Liability Partnership or a Cooperative Society or a Society or a Trust, the organisation or its authorised signatory shall provide its GSTIN and PAN along with its Aadhaar number.
  • In case an enterprise is duly registered as an Udyam with PAN, any deficiency of information for previous years when it did not have PAN shall be filled up on self-declaration basis.
  • No enterprise shall file more than one Udyam Registration: Provided that any number of activities including manufacturing or service or both may be specified or added in one Udyam Registration.
  • Whoever intentionally misrepresents or attempts to suppress the self-declared facts and figures appearing in the Udyam Registration or updation process shall be liable to such penalty as specified under section 27 of the Act.

Section 27 of MSME Act provides:

27. Penalty for contravention of section 8 or section 22 or section 26.—

(1) Whoever intentionally contravenes or attempts to contravene or abets the contravention of any of the provisions contained in sub-section (1) of section 8 or sub-section (2) of section 26 shall be punishable—

(a) in the case of the first conviction, with fine which may extend to rupees one thousand; and

(b) in the case of any second or subsequent conviction, with fine which shall not be less than rupees one thousand but may extend to rupees ten thousand.

(2) Where a buyer contravenes the provisions of section 22, he shall be punishable with a fine which shall not be less than rupees ten thousand.


  • All existing enterprises registered under EM–Part-II or UAM shall register again on the Udyam Registration portal on or after the 1st day of July, 2020.
  • All enterprises registered till 30th June, 2020, shall be reclassified in accordance with this notification.
  • The existing enterprises registered prior to 30th June, 2020, shall continue to be valid only for a period up to the 31st day of March, 2021.
  • An enterprise registered with any other organisation under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises shall register itself under Udyam Registration.

Spirited enquiry by the government to further plug the gaps

The GST data now reveals that almost 99 per cent of businesses now fall into the MSME definition on the turnover criteria, and more than half the companies registered with GST have less than 20 lakh turnover. The export turnover criteria has also been excluded from the definition, providing relief support to several units while allowing them to grow bigger without restriction. The Income tax department’s data and analysis show that after considering the depreciation of assets, only a few thousand firms in India have an investment in machinery and equipment that exceeds Rs. 50 crore, the upper limit of the medium enterprise.

Encouraged on by the information released by the GST authorities, the government now intends to fill the gaps using the IT and GST data. The MSME ministry has detected that one Aadhaar number can be used to create up to five Udyog Aadhaar numbers, the unique number given by the MSME ministry to the small businesses that register with them. Business enterprises can now develop into multiple, separate supportive entities and continue to claim all the benefits given by the government.

As per latest RBI Notification Number FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.4/06.02.31/2020-21 dated 21.08.2020, clarifications regarding new definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises is as follows:

The circular FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.3/06.02.31/2020-21 dated July 2, 2020 on ‘Credit flow to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Sector’.

2. In view of the representations from IBA and banks regarding applicability of certain aspects contained in the Gazette notification No. S.O. 2119(E) dated June 26, 2020 on new criteria for classifying the enterprises as micro, small and medium enterprises, the Ministry of MSME, vide their Office Memorandum (OM) No.2/1(5)/2019 – P & G/Policy (pt. IV) dated August 6, 2020 and letter F.No.5/2(2)/2020 – P & G/Policy dated August 13, 2020 has, inter alia, clarified the following:

2.1 Classification of Enterprises as per new definition

(i) Classification / re-classification of MSMEs is the statutory responsibility of the GoI, Ministry of MSME, as per the provisions of the MSMED Act, 2006.

(ii) As per para 2 of the said Gazette notification all enterprises are required to register online and obtain ‘Udyam Registration Certificate’. All lenders may, therefore, obtain ‘Udyam Registration Certificate ’from the entrepreneurs.

2.2 Validity of EM Part II and UAMs issued till June 30, 2020

(i) The existing Entrepreneurs Memorandum (EM) Part II and Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum (UAMs) of the MSMEs obtained till June 30, 2020 shall remain valid till March 31, 2021. Further, all enterprises registered till June 30, 2020, shall file new registration in the Udyam Registration Portal well before March 31, 2021.

(ii) ‘Udyam Registration Certificate’ issued on self-declaration basis for enterprises exempted from filing GSTR and / or ITR returns will be valid for the time being, upto March 31, 2021.

2.3 Value of Plant and Machinery or Equipment

The online form for Udyam Registration captures depreciated cost as on 31st March each year of the relevant previous year. Therefore, the value of Plant and Machinery or Equipment for all purposes of the Notification No. S.O. 2119(E) dated June 26, 2020 and for all the enterprises shall mean the Written Down Value (WDV) as at the end of the Financial Year as defined in the Income Tax Act and not cost of acquisition or original price, which was applicable in the context of the earlier classification criteria.

3. In view of the above, instructions contained in circular FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.10/06.02.31/2017-18 dated July 13, 2017 on ‘Investment in plant and machinery for the purpose of classification as Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises – documents to be relied upon’ are superseded.

4. Further, other instructions contained in circular FIDD.MSME & NFS.BC.No.3/06.02.31/2020-21 dated July 2, 2020 remains the same.

If, written down value is to be taken then it has to be as per Income Tax Act, 1961 rates but, no where specified at what rates whether on SLM or WDV basis. This is an anomaly. If, the assets were appreciated by the enterprise then what is to be taken as investment. The Government must come out with clarification on this.

It is important to note that the MSME covers only the manufacturing and service sector and not the Traders, which are in large numbers in the Country. They have to take huge amount of money from the manufacturing sector. Thus, the trading community must be included in MSME sector.

Dharma Beliefs:

Almost in every house, who believes in Sanatan Dharma, one may found Tulsi (Ocimum Sactum/Holy Basil).  It is basically found in Indian Sub-continent. It is considered a sacred plant. It is also called “Vrinda” in Sanatan Dharma or in Hindu belief Goddess Tulsi is called “Vrinda”. It is regarded as avtar of Lakshmi and thus the consort of God Vishnu.

In ritual worship of Vishnu and his avtars like Krishna & Vithoba, generally it is mandatory to offer the leaves of Tulsi. It is also traditional & cultural, the plant is grown in front of the house or the central courtyard. According to some mythological story, it was said that Tulsi is actually an ardent lover of Krishna whom Radha has cursed to be a plant. Hindus believe that every house that has Tulsi plant is a place of pilgrimage and unnatural death can never enter. Even the withering of Tulsi indicates that some bad is going to happen in the house.

Mythological Story (Religious Views):

According to another Hindu mythological story, a demon named Jalandhar has a wife called Vrinda. Jalandhar penanced and got a boon that he will live till eternity until he loses his Krishna kavach (his armor) and his wife loses her chastity. But when the demon started created havoc in all the three worlds, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva thought of ending up his life. Then Lord Vishnu approached Jalandhar and asked for Krishna kavach which Jalandhar gives off in a weak moment.

Then, Lord Shiva fights with Jalandhar while Lord Vishnu disguises himself as Jalandhar and breaches his wife’s chastity. This breaks the boon he was given and Jalandhar gets killed.

When Vrinda came to know the fact, she hated Lord Shiva for killing her husband. She cursed Vishnu to become a black stone and to stay away from his wife Lakshmi. Feeling betrayed, Vrinda jumps into the ocean and sacrifices her life. Lord Vishnu transforms her soul into a plant and names it as Tulsi.

Lord Vishnu gets turned into Saligrama and the curse of being away from wife gets into reality during Ramavatar. Vishnu in the form of Saligrama is married to Tulsi on Prabodhini Ekadasi which is commemorated as the day of Tulsi Vivah. Later, Tulsi attains a divine status and was blessed to be the dearest of Lord Vishnu. Hence Lord Vishnu is always worshipped with Tulsi leaves.

There is another story, which narrates that the creator God Brahma reside in the branches. All Hindu pilgrimage centres reside in its roots, the Ganges flows within its roots, all deities are in its stem and its leaves, and that the most sacred Hindu texts, the Vedas are found in the upper part of the holy basil’s branches. A person who waters and cares for the Tulsi daily is believed to gain moksha (salvation) and the divine grace of Vishnu, even if he does not worship it. Traditionally, the daily worship and care of the plant is the responsibility of the women of the household. Though daily worship is prescribed, Tuesdays and Fridays are considered especially sacred for Tulsi worship.

According to legend, she was the wife of demon Shankhchud who was killed by Lord Shiva. Hence, offering Tulsi leaves to Shiva is prohibited. It is considered inauspicious to pluck Tulsi leaves on Sundays and Ekadashi. Hence, the practice should be avoided.

Tulsi leaves should not be plucked even after sunlight. It is believed in Sanatan Dharma that if any particular pooja or program is happening anywhere, it is necessary to use the Basil leaves in it or else the pooja is not completed without it. Tulsi plant is considered auspicious in the house. Tulsi or holy Basil is a sacred plant according to Hindu belief.

There is generation of heat energy in the dormant and serene sattvik frequencies present in the Tulsi plant by the touch of women which leads to decrease in its sattvikta (sattva quality). Hence they are prohibited from gathering or plucking the Tulsi leaves.

Though there are such references in certain scriptures that Tulsi plucking can be avoided on Purnima, Amavasya, Dvadashi, Sunday, lunar eclipse, a vaishnava should avoid “Dvadasi day” to pluck Tulsi leaves. So the devotee in order to not to disturb or hurt her, don’t pluck leaves.

Tulsi needs high amount of water. If you water in the morning, the plant dries up by the evening. This happens even when I used plastic pots to reduce evaporation. So disbalance of watering can be a reason of dying.

Tulsi leaves should not be plucked by women

The reason behind this popular belief might just shock you. It is believed that women have a high proportion of raja component when compared to men. There is generation of heat energy in the dormant and serene sattvik frequencies present in the tulsi plant by the touch of women which leads to decrease in its sattvikta (sattva quality). Hence they are prohibited from gathering or plucking the tulsi leaves.


Tulsi Vivah:

A ceremony known as Tulsi Vivah is performed by the Hindus between Prabodhini Ekadashi (eleventh lunar day of the waxing moon of Kartika) to Kartik Poornima (full moon in Kartika), usually on the eleventh or the twelfth lunar day. It is the ceremonial wedding of the Tulsi plant to Vishnu, in the form of his image, Shaligram or a Krishna or Rama image.

In worship of other deities:

Set of Japa mala, made from Tulsi wood, with head bead in foreground.

Vaishnavas traditionally use japa malas (a string of Hindu prayer beads) made from Tulsi stems or roots called Tulsi malas, which are an important symbol of the initiation. Tulsi malas are considered to be auspicious for the wearer, and believed to connect him with Vishnu or Krishna and confer the protection of the deity.

There are conflicting accounts about Tulsi leaves being used in the worship of the God Shiva, a rival sect (Shaiva) God to the Vaishnava Vishnu. While Bael leaves are often offered to Shiva, some authors note that Tulsi may also be offered to him. Tulsi worship is sometimes regarded the worship of Shiva, conveying the deity’s omnipresence. Shiva’s aniconic symbol – the linga – is sometimes prescribed to have made from the black soil from the roots of the Tulsi plant. However, Tulsi is taboo in worship of the Devi – the Hindu Divine Mother as the pungent aroma of the Tulsi plant angers her. It is also important for the worship of Hanuman. In Orissa, the Tulsi plant represents all local deities and rituals to propitiate them are offered in front of the plant. The Nayars of Malabar offer Tulsi plants to pacify evil spirits.

Importance in Sanatna Dharma:

In Srimad Bhagavatam,the significance of the Tulsi over other plants is described as:

Although flowering plants like the mandāra, kunda, kurabaka, utpala, campaka, arṇa, punnāga, nāgakeśara, bakula, lily and pārijāta are full of transcendental fragrance, they are still conscious of the austerities performed by Tulsi, for Tulsi is given special preference by the Lord, who garlands Himself with Tulsi leaves

— Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto 4, Chapter 15, Verse 19[19]

Every part of the Tulsi plant is revered and considered sacred. Even the soil around the plant is holy. The Padma Purana declares a person who is cremated with Tulsi twigs in his funeral pyre gains moksha and a place in Vishnu’s abode Vaikuntha.

Kinds of Tulsi:

There are three types of Tulsi described in Hindy mythology. Ocimum tenuiflorum (or Ocimum sanctum L.) includes two botanically and phytochemically distinct cultivars that include Rama or Sri Tulsi (green leaves) and Krishna or Shyama Tulsi (purplish leaves), while Ocimum gratissimum is a third type of Tulsi known as Vana or wild/forest Tulsi (dark green leaves). The different Tulsi types exhibit vast diversity in morphology and phytochemical composition including secondary metabolites, yet they can be distinguished from other Ocimum species by the colour of their yellow pollen, high levels of eugenol, and smaller chromosome number. Despite being distinct species with Ocimum tenuiflorum having six times less DNA than Ocimum gratissimum, they are traditionally used in the same way to treat similar ailments. For consistency, this review uses the term Tulsi to refer to both Ocimum tenuiflorum or Ocimum gratissimum.

Religious Views:

Why no water offered on Sunday?

There is no reason for not watering Tulsi plant on Sunday. Like any other plant, Tulsi is also one. However care needs to be taken to give it only right amount of water. In order to optimise amount of water a practice of weekly off has been introduced.

Often we water it in the evening as well but that is the wrong way of keeping the plant healthy or as per Vastu getting the right benefits of the “Tulsi plant”. Never water the plant in the evening. “Tulsi plant” is a very important for many Indian households.

Tulsi leaves should not be plucked on Sunday

As per the Padma Purana “Any person, who picks Tulsi leaves on Dvadashi, falls into a grievously hellish planet to suffer.”The philosophy behind this is that Tulsi Maharani, the pure devotee of the Lord, observes a fast on these days. So the devotee in order to not to disturb or hurt her, don’t pluck leaves. I am not able to establish much logic here but I assume that this tradition would have came into being to discourage the plucking of leafs for environment purposes.

Divine Tulsi:

In Sanatan Dharma, Tulsi is worshipped as a goddess and every part of the Tulsi plant is revered and considered sacred, including the leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and oil. Even the surrounding soil, which has recently been found to harbor beneficial endophytic fungi is considered an aspect of the divine. As such, Hindi households are considered incomplete without a Tulsi plant, typically in an ornate earthen pot situated in a courtyard where Tulsi serves both practical and ceremonial purposes. For example, Tulsi’s distinct clove-like aroma arising from its high eugenol content serves to link the householder to the divine while also repelling mosquitoes, flies and other harmful insects. Tulsi is further integrated into daily life through evening and morning rituals and other spiritual and purification practices that can involve ingesting its leaves or consuming Tulsi tea.

In addition to sanctifying the home, Tulsi is used ceremonially in Sanatan Dharma and some Greek Orthodox Churches to create “holy water.” Tulsi wood or seeds are also used to make Tulsi malas, which are strings of beads used to help the mind focus during meditation, chanting and devotional practices and therefore ceremonially connect mind, body and spirit. Tulsi has also been used in cities to combat air pollution and hundreds of thousands of Tulsi plants have been planted around the Taj Mahal in Agra to help protect the iconic marble building from environmental pollution damage.

Tulsi as an Elixir

Tulsi or holy Basil is used in Indian Sub-continent and been used within ayurvedic medicines more than 3000 years. It is an ayurvedic system, It is referred to as an “Elixir of Life” for its healing powers. In the Indian Materia Medica, Tulsi leaf extracts are described for treatment of many diseases like bronchitis, rheumatism, and pyrexia. The juice of leaves has been applied as a drop for ear ache, while the tea infusion has been used for treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders. The roots and stems were also traditionally used to treat mosquito and snake bites and for malaria.

In numerous study, Tulsi leaf having potent pharmacological actions that include adaptogenic, metabolic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, radioprotective, antimicrobial and antidiabetic effects that have been extensively reviewed previously.

Ayurveda and lifestyle medicine:

As a science of life and the world’s oldest medical system, it uses and draws upon India’s incredible biodiversity with a variety that is unsurpassed by any medical system; yet, of all the herbs used, none has a status comparable to Tulsi or holy basil (Ocimum sanctum).

Tulsi: A potent adaptogen:

Tulsi is an aromatic shrub in the basil family Lamiaceae (tribe ocimeae) that is thought to have originated in north central India and now grows native throughout the eastern world tropics.[2] Within Ayurveda, Tulsi is known as “The Incomparable One,” “Mother Medicine of Nature” and “The Queen of Herbs,” and is revered as an “elixir of life” that is without equal for both its medicinal and spiritual properties. Within India, Tulsi has been adopted into spiritual rituals and lifestyle practices that provide a vast array of health benefits that are just beginning to be confirmed by modern science. This emerging science on Tulsi, which reinforces ancient Ayurvedic wisdom, suggests that Tulsi is a tonic for the body, mind and spirit that offers solutions to many modern day health problems.

Tulsi is perhaps one of the best examples of Ayurveda’s holistic lifestyle approach to health. Tulsi tastes hot and bitter and is said to penetrate the deep tissues, dry tissue secretions and normalize kapha and vata. Daily consumption of Tulsi is said to prevent disease, promote general health, wellbeing and longevity and assist in dealing with the stresses of daily life. Tulsi is also credited with giving luster to the complexion, sweetness to the voice and fostering beauty, intelligence, stamina and a calm emotional disposition. In addition to these health-promoting properties, Tulsi is recommended as a treatment for a range of conditions including anxiety, cough, asthma, diarrhea, fever, dysentery, arthritis, eye diseases, otalgia, indigestion, hiccups, vomiting, gastric, cardiac and genitourinary disorders, back pain, skin diseases, ringworm, insect, snake and scorpion bites and malaria.

Considered as a potent adaptogen, Tulsi has a unique combination of pharmacological actions that promote wellbeing and resilience.

The studies reveal that Tulsi has a unique combination of actions that include: Antimicrobial (including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, anthelmintic), mosquito repellent, anti-diarrheal, anti-oxidant, anti-cataract, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, radioprotective, hepato-protective, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-hypertensive, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory, central nervous system depressant, memory enhancement, anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive, diaphoretic, anti-thyroid, anti-fertility, anti-ulcer, anti-emetic, anti-spasmodic, anti-arthritic, adaptogenic, anti-stress, anti-cataract, anti-leukodermal and anti-coagulant activities. These pharmacological actions help the body and mind cope with a wide range of chemical, physical, infectious and emotional stresses and restore physiological and psychological function.

Protection and detoxification:

Many of the physiological benefits of Tulsi can be attributed to its ability to assist with the body’s internal housekeeping and protection of the body from toxin-induced damage. These functions are often attributed to Tulsi’s high content of phenolic compounds and anti-oxidant properties, with Krishna Tulsi (black/purple variety) having a higher phenolic content and anti-oxidant capacity than white Vana (wild) Tulsi.

Toxicant stress: Chemicals, heavy metals and radiation:

The ability of Tulsi to protect against the damaging effects of various toxicants has been documented in numerous experimental studies. These studies attest to the ability of Tulsi to prevent liver, kidney and brain injury by protecting against the genetic, immune and cellular damage caused by pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. Thus, Tulsi has been shown to protect against the toxic effects of industrial chemicals such as butylparaben, carbon tetrachloride, copper sulfate and ethanol, and common pesticides such as rogor, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and lindane. Tulsi has also been shown to protect against the toxic effects of many pharmaceuticals drugs including acetaminophen, meloxicam, paracetamol, haloperidol and anti-tubercular drugs.

In addition to protecting against toxic chemicals, Tulsi has also been shown to protect against the toxic effects of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and mercury and the toxic effects of radiation. Tulsi exerts its radio-protective effects by scavenging free radicals and reducing the oxidative cellular and chromosomal damage induced by radiation, thereby reducing organ damage and enhancing postradiation survival in experimental animals.

Physical stress:

The actions that protect against the toxic effects of chemicals and radiation also help to address the toxic effects of many physical stressors. Prolonged physical exertion, physical restraint, exposure to cold and excessive noise disturb homeostasis by inducing physiological and metabolic stress.

Metabolic stress:

Metabolic stress due to poor diet, low physical activity and psychological stress is a prominent feature of modern lifestyles and “metabolic syndrome” is estimated to affect as much as one-third of modern populations. Metabolic syndrome, also known as “prediabetes” or “Syndrome X,” includes the “deadly quartet” of centripetal obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and poor glucose regulation and is associated with chronic inflammation and a greater risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke. While the exact causes of metabolic syndrome are still being debated, there is evidence to suggest that Tulsi can assist in dealing with many features of metabolic syndrome and their consequences.

Numerous test tube and animal experiments as well as human clinical trials have shown that Tulsi has anti-diabetic activity. Studies using diabetic laboratory animals have shown that Tulsi can reduce blood glucose, correct abnormal lipid profiles and protect the liver and kidneys from the metabolic damage caused by high glucose levels. Tulsi has also been shown to improve lipid profiles, prevent weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance and protect the organs and blood vessels from atherosclerosis in laboratory animals fed high-fat diets. Similarly, in human clinical trials, Tulsi has shown to decrease glucose levels, improve blood pressure and lipid profiles and reduce many diabetic symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes. The beneficial metabolic effects of Tulsi are multiple and include protecting the liver, kidneysand pancreatic islet cells from free radical damage; enhancing liver bile acid synthesis and reducing liver lipid synthesis; enhancing insulin secretion and action; lowering cortisol levels; and reducing inflammation. The anti-inflammatory action of Tulsi, which has been observed in both acute and chronic inflammatory models in animals is attributed to Tulsi’s eugenol and linoleic acid content and the inhibition of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. This enables Tulsi to exert anti-inflammatory effects comparable to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as phenylbutazone,[68] ibuprofen, naproxen, aspirin[69] and indomethacin.

Infection protection:

Modern research has revealed that Tulsi has anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal activity that includes activity against many pathogens responsible for human infections. Tulsi has also been shown to boost defenses against infective threats by enhancing immune responses in non stressed and stressed animals and healthy humans.  While no human trials have been published, there is experimental evidence that Tulsi may help in the treatment of various human bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, skin and wound infections, typhoid fever, cholera, tuberculosis, gonorrhea,acne, herpes simplex, leishmaniasis, various pneumonias and fungal infections as well as mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria and filariasis.

Tulsi’s broad-spectrum activity, which includes activity against Streptococcus mutans, the organism responsible for tooth decay, further suggests that it can be used as a herbal mouth wash for treating bad breath, gum disease and mouth ulcers. This has been confirmed in clinical trials that have demonstrated that rinsing with Tulsi is as effective as 0.2{551c903f756d5bf12b7d58e2eb1e8b74af35058efa7a05d3e7b41e9147979503} Chlorhexidine and Listerine in reducing the levels of Streptococcus mutans and that a herbal mouthwash that includes Tulsi is preferred for its taste and convenience.

Tulsi’s unique combination of antibacterial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities also makes it useful in wound healing. This is supported by experimental evidence that has shown that Tulsi can increase wound-breaking strength and accelerate wound healing in laboratory animals. Tulsi has also been shown to have anti-ulcer and ulcer-healing activity that has been observed in many different animal models including aspirin-, indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-, reserpine-, serotonin-, acetic acid-, meloxicam-, cold restraint-, pyloric ligation- and stress-induced ulceration models. This anti-ulcer activity is attributed to multiple actions including the reduction of offensive factors such as acid-pepsin secretion and lipid peroxidation and the enhancement of gastric defensive factors such as mucin secretion, cellular mucus and longevity of mucosal cells.

Mental stress:

In addition to physical, toxic and infective stress, modern living is associated with heightened levels of psychological stress caused by the many demands and fast pace of modern life. This stress compounds the toxic effects of chemical pollutants and the constant fear of pervasive toxic chemicals can itself lead to even further stress and anxiety that may be just as toxic as the chemicals causing it. While the reality of daily chemical exposure cannot be denied, regular consumption of Tulsi not only helps protect and detoxify the body’s cells and organs, it can also help reduce toxic stress by relaxing and calming the mind and offering many psychological benefits including anti-depressant activity and positive effects on memory and cognitive function.

The psychotherapeutic properties of Tulsi have been explored in various animal experiments that reveal that Tulsi has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant properties, with effects comparable to diazepam and antidepressants drugs. Animal studies further reveal that Tulsi enhances memory and cognitive function and protects against aging-induced memory deficits.  Similarly, in human studies, Tulsi has been observed to reduce stress, anxiety and depression, with a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study reporting that Tulsi significantly improves general stress scores, sexual and sleep problems and symptoms such as forgetfulness and exhaustion.

While modern scientific studies suggest that Tulsi is effective in treating a range of stressful conditions, within Ayurveda, Tulsi is more commonly recommended as a preventive measure to enhance the ability to adapt to both psychological and physical stress and therefore prevent the development of stress-related diseases. To this end, many Ayurvedic practitioners recommend the regular consumption of Tulsi tea as an essential lifestyle practice.

Nature nurture:

The cultivation and reverence for the Tulsi plant in the home not only serves specific religious purposes it also directly connects the devotee with the creative power of nature. Connection with nature is profoundly healing and life-affirming; yet, the potential health, emotional, social and cognitive benefits of connection with nature are only just being realized in the west where disconnection from nature and “nature deficit” are common. A review of the scientific literature on the health benefits of connection to nature suggest that “access to nature plays a vital role in human health, wellbeing and development that has not been fully recognized and there is now a global movement to reconnect people with nature that has arisen out of concerns over nature deficit, sedentary lifestyles, obesity, mental health issues, excessive use of electronic media, environmental degradation, wildlife conservation, sustainability and climate change.

Tulsi as a vehicle of consciousness:

Perhaps one of the greatest of Tulsi’s benefits in the modern world comes from its global distribution based on its cultivation using ethical, fair trade, organic and ecological farming practices. There is a growing realization that in order to tackle issues of food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change a shift in agriculture is needed from a “green revolution” to an “ecological intensification revolution. This has been highlighted in a recent United Nations document titled “Wake Up Before It’s Too Late,” which calls for the global community to endorse and advocate for local solutions to toxicity, food insecurity and poverty, such as the use of organic and small-scale farming over the use of genetically modified organisms and monocultures. While ecological farming methods are not specific to Tulsi, they have been effectively applied to Tulsi cultivation by Organic India Pvt. Ltd. This company, which was established as a “vehicle of consciousness,” works with thousands of organic Tulsi farmers in India to produce a business ecology whereby rural Indian farmers gain their dignity and a healthy and sustainable livelihood while serving to nurture the land they live on and produce a range of teas that enable consumers around the world to access the benefits of Tulsi.

Modern day scientific research into Tulsi demonstrates the many psychological and physiological benefits from consuming Tulsi and provides a testament to the wisdom inherent in Hinduism and Ayurveda, which celebrates Tulsi as a plant that can be worshipped, ingested, made into tea and used for medicinal and spiritual purposes within daily life. In providing a focus for ethical, sustainable and ecological farming practices that provides a livelihood for thousands of farmers, the cultivation of Tulsi goes beyond providing benefits for individuals and households and begins to address broader social, economic and environmental issues.

A Herbal Remedy:

According to Jeevan Kulkarni, author of ‘Historical Truths & Untruths Exposed,’ when Hindu women worship Tulsi, they in effect pray for “less and less carbonic acid and more and more oxygen – a perfect object lesson in sanitation, art and religion”. The Tulsi plant is even known to purify or de-pollute the atmosphere. Tulsi used to be a universal remedy in cases of malarial fever.

Medicinal Value of Tulsi:

Apart from religious value, the Tulsi has many medicinal properties making it a sacred plant. Tulsi has been mentioned in Charaka Samhita, an ancient book of ayurveda. It proves that Tulsi has been used in many medicines since thousands of years. Cold, headache, heart disease, stomach infections can be cured by having an extract of Tulsi. It acts as a pain killer. Almost all the ayurvedic cough syrups contain Tulsi as an important ingredient, as it helps in lessening bronchitis. Tulsi reduces blood glucose levels and so is an effective herb for diabetes. Radiation poisoning as well as cataract can also be cured to certain extent by having Tulsi extract. Tulsi acts as a stress reliever by balancing various body processes. It promotes longevity.Tulsi leaves are beneficial for nervous system and help in enhancing memory.Tulsi helps in strengthening kidney. Drink juice of Tulsi leaves mixed in honey for six months in case of renal stones. This will expel these stones through urinary tract. Mouth ulcers and infections can be cured with Tulsi. Tulsi is also very beneficial against insect bites or stings. Drinking juice of Tulsi leaves after every few hours in case of bite is very beneficial. You can also apply Tulsi paste to the affected parts. Owing to immense medicinal value, Tulsi is considered a sacred plant in India.

Home Remedies:

Tulsi can rightly be termed as one of the most commonly and widely used ingredients in many Indian home remedies. From regular fever to some of the deadliest and most fatal bacterial and viral infections – Tulsi can help cure or to some extent, facilitate treating most diseases.  Dr. Simran Saini from New Delhi suggests consuming a drink made by boiling Tulsi leaves and adding about 2grams of black pepper to it. This drink helps in building your immunity, acts as an antibacterial element and facilitates recovery from dengue. The quintessential kadha – a mix of ginger, Tulsi leaves, peppercorn (crushed) in boiling hot water – is usually seen as a potion that can put most illnesses straight. Apart from these there is a bundle of other beneficial properties that this humble plant boasts of, take a look-

1. It acts as a detoxifying, cleansing and purifying agent – both from within and without.

2. Therefore it is good for skin – both when consumed and applied topically.

3. It is also effective in treating skin disorders, itching and issues like ringworms.

4. It can be made into teas or can be had raw, powdered, paste or in form herbal supplements.

5. It has antibiotic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-carcinogenic properties.

6. It helps in relieving from fever, headache, sore throat, cold, cough, flu and chest congestion.

7. It is also beneficial in treating respiratory ailments like chronic bronchitis, asthma et cetera.

8. Helps relieve stress, strengthen immunity, and facilitate proper digestion.

9. It is loaded with phytonutrients, essential oils, Vitamin A and C

10. Regular Tulsi consumption can also aid in balancing various bodily processes.

11. It counters elevated blood sugar levels and is therefore beneficial for diabetics.

12. It helps in regulating uric acid levels in body, thereby elimination risks of developing kidney stones. It is also beneficial for those who have kidney stones.

13. According to the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, Tulsi can help in maintaining normal levels of the stress hormone – cortisol in the body.

14. It can wards off harmful effects of free radicals.

15. Is great for dental health and for healthy gums.

16. Is an effective insect repellant and can aid in treating insect bite.

17. Is also beneficial in treating conditions like hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis, dengue and swine flu.

18. It is also known as adaptogen.

How and When to Grow?

Tulsi plant grows in rich and moist soil with ample sunlight. You can begin by planting it just a few centimeters below the soil with a light cover of dirt. Let it grow indoors till it’s about 6-7 inch tall, after which the plant can be transferred outdoors. Tulsi should be planted right before monsoon, under intense heat.

How to Consume?

Consume it raw, plucked fresh from the plant, add it in your tea or make kadha out of it. Apart from the conventional ways of consuming the humble, holy basil, you can experiment with it in your cooking and render an exquisite, earthy, aromatic flavour to your preparations. To begin with, we bring to you one of the most basic and widely loved delicacies prepared using Tulsi leaves.

Why We Should Not Chew Tulsi Leaves:

It is said that Tulsi is a sacred plant and must be grown up in aangan or country yard, watered carefully and worship by the family members. It is discussed above that it has besides religious significance various medical qualities not in ayurveda, but also in herbal & home remedies. It is natural antibiotic. It is also often recommended to start your day by having two to three fresh Tulsi leaves on an empty stomach, as explained earlier. It is a great blood purifier and is known to flush out toxins and clean your internal systems. Along with this comes the advice to not chew Tulsi leaves but instead swallow them.

If we look at it from the religious context, some people believe that chewing Tulsi leaves is disrespectful as Tulsi was also the name of Lord Vishnu’s (one of the three main Gods in Hinduism) wife and therefore, the plant is worshiped and considered sacred. But that’s not all, there is a scientific side to this too which suggests that it is best to swallow Tulsi leaves.

Medically it is not to be chewed because of the fact that it contains mercury & iron, which are released on chewing. These minerals are known to damage the teeth & causes discoloration. The leaves are also slightly acidic in nature and since, the environment in our mouth is alkaline, it may cause the tooth enamel to wear away if consumed regularly in very large quantities. Usually, fresh juice extracted from Tulsi leaves are used as a home remedy for mouth ulcer. But it is still advised to avoid chewing raw Tulsi leaves because it contains mercury & iron, which can lead to tanning of teeth.

In nut shell, the research-based benefits of Tulsi are:

Natural Immunity Booster

Reduces Fever (antipyretic) & Pain(analgesic)

Reduces Cold, Cough & Other Respiratory Disorders

Reduces Stress & Blood Pressure

Anti-cancer properties

Good for Heart Health

Good for Diabetes Patients

Useful in Kidney stones & Gouty Arthritis

Useful in Gastrointestinal Disorders

Good for Skin & Hair

Acts as an Insect Repellent

There are some side effects of consuming Tulsi. These are as follows:

Tulsi may affect the reproductive capacity of women who are trying to conceive.

Some people experience nausea or diarrhoea when they first add Tulsi tea to their diet, so its best to start with small quantities and increase your consumption over time.

Tulsi may lower blood sugar and should be used with caution in people who have diabetes and are on blood-sugar-lowering medication.

Nutritional Value:

Tulsi leaves are rich in vitamins A, C and K and minerals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and potassium. It also has a good amount of protein and fibre.

Adding holy basil to your self-care:

Supplements of holy basil extract are available in pill or capsule form. The suggested dosage ranges from 300 mg to 2,000 mg per day for general preventative purposes. When used as a treatment, the recommended dosage is 600 mg to 1,800 mg taken in multiple doses throughout the day. All parts of the plant might be used in supplements and topical ointments. Essential oil of holy basil is distilled from leaves and flowers of the plant.

One can also make holy basil tea using the leaves, flowers, or dried leaf powder. The herb can also be used to make freshly brewed tea by placing 2–3 teaspoons of holy basil in a cup of boiling water and letting it steep for 5–6 minutes. The leaves are also commonly used in cooking, though some people eat the leaves raw. Holy basil tastes spicy and bitter.

In brief Tulsi (Ocimum Sactum / Holy Basil) has religious significance as per ancestral theories and used by our Santan Dharma ancestors, since centuries and also even now besides religious values, it has scientific medical values and benefits too, which are proven by Science.

Therefore, it is in my candid opinion that one should use Tulsi not only because it has religious faith, but also due to good health & other benefits.

Often people who call themselves progressive consider Dharma and Majhab to be the same. There are many meanings of Dharma or Majhab, such as the way of heaven and attainment of God and which the founder of Dharma has told. In many places, it also comes in the sense of faith.

Dharma and Majhab do not have the same meaning nor does faith and belief, which is discussed below:

In the Vedic period, the name ‘ Sanatan Dharma’ is found for the religion of the Indian subcontinent. ‘Sanatan’ means – eternal or ‘perpetual’, meaning one who has neither beginning nor end. Sanatan Dharma is basically Indian religion, which was spread all over Greater India (Indian subcontinent) at one time.

Dharma is often translated as “duty”, “religion” or “religious duty”, but has a deeper meaning. The word comes from the Sanskrit root “dhri” which means “to sustain” or “that which is integral to something” (e.g. dharma of sugar is to be sweet, fire to be hot). A person’s dharma consists of duties that sustain him according to his innate characteristics which are both spiritual and material, generating two corresponding types:  Sanatandharma – duties performed according to one’s spiritual (constitutional) identity as atman and are thus the same for everyone. Varnashrama-dharma – duties performed according to one’s material (conditional) nature and are specific to the individual at that particular time.

According to the notion of Sanatan-dharma, the eternal and intrinsic inclination of the living entity (atman) is to perform seva (service). Sanatan-dharma, being transcendental, refers to universal and axiomatic laws that are beyond our temporary belief systems Majhab

Majhab is a division of thought or fiqah in Islam. In Islam there are actually many schools. This is because the learned ulema from among the Companions of the Prophet, tabiin and tabi ‘Al-Tabiin who has sufficient conditions and the need for ijtihad are many. However, according to the opinion of the Sunni scholars, the sect of muktabar that can be made opinion and practicing for the public is only four schools, according to the qaul who rajih. For Sunni Islam, there are 4 schools that are Syafie, Maliki, Hanafi and Hanbali. These four schools have the perfect rules, methods and guides written by them in their respective books. It is an invaluable ingredient in the treasury of Islamic law. Other schools have not had enough rules to be used as guides in the field of law as the four. Muslims in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia mostly follow the Syafie sect. For Shi’ite Islam there are three main schools namely Jaafari, Ismaili and Zaidi.

Sanatan Dharma and Majhab have not the same meaning. As the Sanatan Dharma was designed as a way of life designed to best ensure the continuity of humanity on this earth and provide the entire population with spiritual sustenance. Dharma is functional objects. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing “something established or firm”. Majhab is a belief item. A Majhab is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). The major Sunni have many Tasawwufī characteristics and express belief in the Qur’an and The While Nizārī belong to the “Imami jurisprudence” or Ja’fāriyya Madhab.

Dharma is natural due to the nature of human nature or human nature and its basis is the rule of God or creation. But Majhab is unnatural or unnatural by being human. There are many different and different types of Majhab and conflicting evidence of their being manned or created. A madhhab is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). The major Sunni. Their madh’hab was established by Ibn Nusayr, and their aqidah is developed. While Nizārī belong to the “Imami jurisprudence” or Jafāriyya Madhab.

The symptoms of Dharma that Manu Maharaj has told are the same for all mankind and no civilized person can be opposed to him. Dharma is an important term in Indian religions. In Hinduism it means ‘duty’, ‘virtue’, ‘morality’, even ‘religion’ and it refers to the power which upholds the universe and society. The Manu-smriti prescribes to Hindus their dharma—i.e., that set of obligations incumbent on each as a member of one of the four social classes (varnas) and engaged in one of the four stages of life (ashramas). Majhab are many and are accepted only by those who follow the same Majhab. Therefore, they are not public and universal.

Dharma as an ethical category relating to freedom and responsibility. Dharma is a concept which was of great complexity and of paramount importance in Hindu thought prior to the modern period so to be righteous it is necessary to be virtuous. But since there are many Majhab so only the followers of that Majhab accept the same. So they are not public and universal. That is, just as morality has a continuous relationship with Dharma, in the same way, virtue has no relation with Majhab.

Dharma is an ethical form, so to be righteous it is necessary to be virtuous. But even after the completion of conduct, no human being can become a Muslim or a strongman till he brings faith or belief in the beliefs of that religion. Just as no matter how true God is a worshiper and a high-quality virtuous, he cannot become a Christian or a Muslim unless he believes in the Hazrat Jesus and the Bible or Hazrat Mohammad and the Quran Sharif.

It is Dharma that makes man a human being, or it is only by wearing Dharma, Dharma qualities and deeds, that human being attains manhood and becomes entitled to be called a human being. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with Rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and “right way of living”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life. The four purusarthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values).

Dharma means to act virtuously and righteously. That is, it means to act morally and ethically throughout one’s life. However, dharma also has a secondary aspect; since Hindus believe that they are born in debt to the Gods and other human beings, dharma calls for Hindus to repay this debt.

In other words, Dharma and manhood are synonymous. Because wearing Dharma is manhood. It has been said that deeds like eating, drinking, sleeping, producing children are the same between humans and animals. Only Dharma’s are special among humans, which makes humans human. Human beings without religion are like animals

But Majhab makes a man only panthai or Majhabi and superstitious. In other words, by believing in Majhab or Panth, a person becomes a resonant or Christian or Muslim of that Majhab and not a virtuous or a saint. A saint is a holy person. In Christianity, the word “saint” refers to any person who is “in Christ”, and in whom Christ dwells, whether in Heaven or in earth. Orthodox Christians and Catholics teach that all Christians in Heaven are saints, but some are worthy of more honor than others. Virtue is a behaviour showing high moral standards, a quality considered morally good or desirable in a person. A moral excellence, a positive trait or quality subjectively deemed to be morally excellent and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting collective and individual greatness.

Majhabi  are members of an untouchable caste who have left Hinduism. The word Majhabi is derived from the Urdu term Majhab (Majhab) means religion or sect).

Dharma connects human beings directly with God (Mukti) and it is mandatory for them to become righteous or virtuous for the attainment of salvation and for salvation, it is more important than virtue to follow the beliefs of that religion. Mukti means the freedom that all souls desire for. In other words, freedom from sorrow and miseries.  But for liberation of Majhab, it is mandatory for a person to become a pānthai or Majhabi.

Just as Jannat, this is “paradise, garden”, is the final abode of the righteous and the Islamic. Entrants will be greeted by angels with salutations of peace or As-Salamu Alaykum.will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell) and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise) Who considers Allah and Muhammad Sahib as their last Prophet, no matter how adulterous or sinful they may be will get Jannat while non-Muslims, no matter how godly or virtuous they are, they will surely burn in the fire of hell, because he has not brought his faith in Allah and Rasool, the God of Quran.

External signs have no place in Dharma because Dharma is not gender-lingam dharmakaranam means that gender (external sign) is not the cause of Dharma. We have come to such a pass that nobody wears any of the external marks of our Dharma’s, though some discipline as well as orderliness is essential in Dharma also. That is why different jatis and different ashramas have different functions and signs. According to the dharmasastras we must wear the dhoti or the sari in such and such a way or apply the mark to the forehead in a particular manner. All this is not meant for social discipline alone. There is a high purpose, that of purifying our inner life. Besides that there are six Pillars of Santam Dharma like Truthfulness, Mercy, Austerity, Cleanliness, Charity, and Spiritual Education.

However, it is mandatory for Majhabi to have external signs such as a Muslim cap and beard is mandatory for a Muslim. Besides that they have five Pillars like Profession of Faith (shahada), Prayer (salat), Alms (zakat), Fasting (sawm), Pilgrimage (hajj).

 Dharma makes man a (Pursharthi) man because it teaches wisdom to attain abhudaya and Moksha only by true conduct. Purushrthas (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ) literally means an “object of human pursuit”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life. The four purusārthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values. All four Purusarthas are important, but in cases of conflict, Dharma is considered more important than Artha or Kama in Hindu philosophy. Moksha is considered the ultimate ideal of human life. But Majhab teaches man the lesson of laziness, because only by obeying the intentions of Majhab, salvation is taught in him as no concept of inherited sin in Islam. We are born without any sin or sinful conditions. Similarly if a child is born with any abnormal conditions, it is not a punishment of any sin of parents or forefathers. Salvation from sins is achieved through developing and understanding the purpose of life as established by The Holy Quran, gaining knowledge about sinful conditions through over 600 commandments of  the Holy Quran and making “righteousness” as the guiding principle of decision making.

Dharma makes man independent and self-independent by connecting people directly to God because he does not state the need for any intermediary or agent between God and man. Atman (Sanskrit)  आत्मन् means inner selfspirit, or soul. In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta school of  HinduismAtman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain Moksha (liberation), a human being must acquire self-knowledge (Atma Gyan).

But Majhab makes a man dependent on others because he does not consider liberation without the recommendation of the promoter of Majhab. The World of Islam, shows that his great journey had at least two major aims: first to awaken and enlighten Muslim peoples by describing real situations in the Muslim world that extends into Eurasia, and second to elaborate a strategy for the liberation of Muslim peoples under the rule of Western great powers.

Dharma  teaches to sacrifice their lives to protect the interests of others, It is one of the key concepts in Indian thought It has been variously translated as ordinance, duty, right, justice, morality, law, virtue, religion, ethics, good works, code of conduct, and so on. While Majhab gives the message of sacrificing violence to kill the lives of other humans and animals for their own benefit, since the time of Prophet Mohammad, Muslims have sacrificed animals (qurbaani) on the day to honour Ibrahim’s spirit of sacrifice.

Dharma teaches man to love all beings; Dharma means the truth about love. To be a truthful, loving friend is the thing, love lets life through. Happiness is the spring, cherishing others is the river, if  you look carefully and sees clearly, and then you’ll see nothing is as it appears to be. There is literally nothing to worry about, nothing to be afraid of, to love all of yourself you have to love everyone, when you know how love works and you work with love, everything is love and everything works.

Whereas Majhab teaches man to eat the meat of animals and hatred of other Dharma’s. In Islamic law dhabīah (pronounced zabiha by the people from non-Arab Muslim countries such as Iran and Pakistan, ‘slaughtered animal’) is the prescribed method of ritual slaughter of all lawful halal animals. This method of slaughtering lawful animals has several conditions to be fulfilled. The name of God or “In the name of God” (Bismillah) has to be called by the butcher upon slaughter of each halal animal separately, and it should consist of a swift, deep incision with a very sharp knife on the throat, cutting the wind pipejugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord intact.

The method is used to comply with conditions stated in the Quran and in Islamic tradition. However regarding hatred of other Dharma’s by Majhab which is prevalent many Muslim scholars believe that Quranic verses such as “Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error” (and (Quran ) show that Islam prohibits forced conversion towards people of any religion but not about hatrednes. Those who follow Tawheed with Islamic guidelines derived from the holy Quran and Sunnah (practice of Prophet Muhammad) are known as Muslims whereas people denying Islamic teachings are termed as Kuffar (non believers) because of denying Quran and  Sunnah; whereas those who mix Tawheed with others (Gods) are referred as Mushrakeen.  So the whole identity of a Muslim lies how he is about Tawheed. If any person considers anyone as fit for worship except one God called Allah cannot remain Muslim rather turn to be Mushrik. That’s why we see that Muslims are very rigid to adore any person or any object except Allah.

Dharma eliminates discrimination and opposition and teaches unity by focusing mankind on a centre of public ethics and ideas as a human being. In Dharma there  exist some rule or law which ‘Enforces’ moral value and that it is natural to human person. The unity of humanity is one of the central teachings of the Dharma teachings state that since all humans have been created in the image of God, God does not make any distinction between people regardless of race or colour. Thus, because all humans have been created equal, promotes the unity of humanity, and that people’s vision should be world-embracing and that people should love the whole world.

But Majhab increases discrimination and opposition and eradicates unity by making their own separate batches due to their different intentions and duties. There are legalized discrimination, religious hatred, and systematic marginalization of a community in even Muslims. Malaysian Muslims – the Shias – perpetuated in the name of Islam. It demonstrates how a central government-derived fatwa (religious legal opinion) banning Shi’ism and the propagation of Shias teachings in the country since 1996 has been used to justify a range of human rights violations, not limited to the religious freedom of this minority group.

Dharma key beliefs shared among Dharma’s truth is eternal, Dharma is Truth and Reality, The Vedas are the ultimate authority, everyone should strive to achieve dharma, and Individual souls are immortal. The goal of the individual soul is Moksha. Dharma actually believes in one God, The Gods of the Dharma faith represent different forms of persons. Most Dharma has God or goddess such as Shiva, Krishna or Lakshmi to whom they pray regularly. Dharma shows the worship of God.

Whereas Majhabi differs from other Majhab by revealing the worship of promoter / guru / man etc. A madhhab is a school of thought within (Islamic jurisprudence).

The major Sunni madhhab are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali. They emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries CE and by the twelfth century almost all jurists aligned themselves with a particular madhhab. These four schools recognize each other’s validity and they have interacted in legal debate over the centuries. Rulings of these schools are followed across the Muslim world without exclusive regional restrictions, but they each came to dominate in different parts of the world. Imam is an Islamic leadership position.

It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. In Yemen, the title was formerly given to the king of the country.

For Shi’a Muslims, the Imams are leaders of the Islamic community or ummah after the Prophet. The term is only applicable to the members of Ahl al-Bayt, the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, designated as infallibles.

By properly understanding the difference between Dharma and Majhab, human beings can easily make effort to do the best welfare works, faith, truth, reality,  goal, belief, prayer by accepting their thinking  and hence. It is called Dharma, so it is well-being of all in its observance.

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Hinduism is one of a few ancient religions to survive into modern times. The amassment of traditions that compose modern-day Hinduism have developed over at least the past 5000 years, beginning in the Indus Valley region in what was the most immensely colossal civilization of the ancient world. There is no ‘founder’ of Hinduism, nor single prophet or initial edifier. Hindus believe their religion has no identifiable beginning or end and, as such, often refer to it as Santana Dharma (the ‘Eternal Way’). As for the designation itself, ‘Hindu’ is a word first utilized by Persians, dating back to the 6th century BCE, to describe the people living beyond the Indus River. Initially it did not have a concrete religious connotation. The religious meaning of the term did not develop for roughly another 1000 years.

There are as many states, as many cities, as many villages as in India. Such traditions, many people are surprised to visually perceive. People who laugh at Hindu traditions and call it fraud will probably transmute their views by reading this because of the scientific reasons abaft the Hindu traditions, or verbally express furtively. There are many people who do not believe in Hindu philosophy and many believes, but in all it has its scientific base.

It is a false connotation that all the old experiences applicable hundreds of years ago were not just myths, but it is proved by science only then they will believe that those were not myths. In fact, all are predicated on a scientific base. We have to study the scientific base while the myths are to be believed. In fact, our archaic saints had better erudition about all sciences available today. If we go through our Vedas and all religious books and test on scientific substructure the people will find it true.

1. Greeting with folded hands

After kenning these reasons hidden behind it, not only will you be enlightened, but find factual. I am writing a series of some of the myths and its scientific base.

When meeting someone, you greet or fold with hands. Namaste or Namaskar is utilized as an obeisant form of greeting, acknowledging and welcoming a relative, guest or stranger. In some contexts, Namaste is utilized by one person to express gratitude for the assistance offered or given, and to thank the other person for his or her benevolent munificence. While praying we join hands or we do a Namaskar (a way of greeting) or we bow to god. This shows our reverence to God in Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam, etc. Additionally, it denotes our humility towards God. Just like you venerate elders or your father or mother or Experienced or cognizant people or people at higher position.

Scientific reasoning

When the top of all the fingers comes in contact with each other and they are under pressure. Due to acupressure, it has a direct effect on our ocular perceivers, auditory perceivers and encephalon, so that we can recollect the person in front for a long time.

Improvement in blood circulation by joining hands, blood circulation in the body increases. Affirmative, both positive and negative emotions are hidden in the human body. But when you join both hands for salutation, it communicates energy and positivity commences in the body.

The most paramount benefit of Namaste over Handshake is that it is one of the hygienic ways of greeting someone and this is because in case of Handshake you would have to engender a marginally physical contact with your hands to the other person, while in the case of Namaste you would not have to do any such thing.

You all must have heard about the perilous coronavirus, which is spread from one person to another with the avail of physical contacts. Affirmative, shaking hands is additionally a reason of spreading Coronavirus. So with the avail of utilizing Namaste over Handshake as a greeting way, you would be able to truncate your chances to get in contact with this virus, as with this greeting method, you will practice zero bacterial transfer. One study found that high-fives transfer bacteria from person to person. Ergo, experts recommend that cutting out handshakes must be in your hygiene list to protect yourself against cold and flu.

The heart is Strong

Our hand cells are linked to brain cells. When we verbalize hello, when we join our press the palms, the heat cycle and duteous cycle commences activating, so that the arousal commences and it calms the mind and brings bliss in the mind. Concurrently, your heart becomes vigorous and the trepidation inside you commences to culminate.

Acupressure work

When the tops of all the fingers come in contact with each other and there is pressure on them. Acupressure has a direct effect on our ocular perceivers, auditory perceivers and encephalon. Which avails to keep them active for a long time?

There is a left-side and right-side polarity of the body. The right hand constitutes positive energy and left hand negative and when we fold our hands the electromagnetic field of the body becomes neutral, which engenders a reflex action in the nerves, ultimately resulting in the secretion of the pituitary gland. This engenders a resonance rhythm in the encephalon, which engenders a state of rumination.

We can win the heart of millions of people with folded hands. The gesture is a symbol of compliance, submission, sincerity and repentance. When we fold our hands in prayer, we are symbolically communicating with reverence and accolade to God, pledging to Him our fidelity and staunchness and requesting guidance to consummate our true purport on earth It additionally ascertain that when our soul leaves our physical body, that we bring “home” the experiences and learnedness that was expected of us during our time on earth.

2. Worship of people

Many people think that ghosts run away from worshiping people. This tree is very special for Lord Hanuman. It’s also a strong belief that Lord Shiva, Lord Brahma & Lord Vishnu used to hold their advisory under a peepal tree. Even goddess Lakshmi is believed to reside in a Peepal tree on Saturdays and that is why women worship the tree for many boons and blessings

Scientific logic- It is worshiped, so that people have respect for this tree and do not cut it. People are the only tree that carries oxygen even at night. People are a storehouse of medicinal value and are used to treat many ailments and diseases, ranging from asthma and skin diseases, to kidney and various blood-related problems. Peepal tree leaves contain Glucose, Asteroid and Mennos, Phenolic while its bark is rich in Vitamin K, tainen and Phaetosteroline. All of these ingredients make the people tree an exceptional medicinal tree. Its leaves, fruits, bark, all diseases are perishable, Blood disorders, phlegm, bile, inflammation, inflammation, anorexia, Toxin, cough, asymmetry, hiccups.

It is used in diseases like leprosy, skin diseases, etc. due to its properties. The properties of the Peepal tree and its leaves (Peepal Leaf) have been told that the use of Peepal brings colour, relieves wounds, swelling, and pain. Papal cleanses the blood. Peepal bark is beneficial in urinary-vaginal disorders. The use of people bark clears the stomach.

3. Do not sleep under a Peepal tree at night

Scientific Reason

During the day, carbon dioxide is used by the photosynthesis. That is, the plants leave carbon dioxide at night. On the basis of this it is that in the night if you sleep under the tree, you will not get oxygen, which can cause breathing problem, suffocation etc. But at night we should not sleep under the tree.

Its shade provides warmth in winter and coolness in summer

Peepal leaves provide the flow of air and Infectious germs of disease is gradually destroyed by the sound.

4. Kumkum / Tilak on the forehead Women and men apply Kumkum or Tilak on the forehead

Scientific logic- A vein runs between the ocular perceivers to the forehead. By applying Kumkum or Tilak, the energy of that place remains. When applying Tilak on the forehead, when there is pressure with the thumb or finger, then the skin of the face supplies blood

The space between the eyebrows is associated with Intuition. The forehead denotes spirituality. So when a long Tilak is put starting from ajna chakra (between eyebrows) & moving upwards, then it is to take the individual’s cerebrations towards spirituality, which is the paramount purport of any religious act.

The scriptures state that we should utilize the middle finger to apply Tilak.

Since this finger is associated with the heart, the vibrations permeating it are carried to the heart. When applying Tilak to Parameshwar in the mid-brow region vibrations emanating from the ‘third eye’ present there are carried by it to the heart, thereby engendering devotion and deport (spiritual emotion) in the mind throughout the day and imparting Shanti (serenity).